GERUNDS ING VERB FORMS AND INFINITIVES TUTORIAL What
GERUNDS (-ING VERB FORMS) AND INFINITIVES TUTORIAL
What are Gerunds? words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns very easy to spot end in –ing no exception to this rule can be used as: a subject, direct object, subject complement, object of preposition. can be made negative by adding "not. " Examples: Not doing anything is worse than doing the wrong thing. He enjoys not working. The best thing for your health is not smoking.
Gerund as a subject Example: Reading helps you learn English. - reading is the SUBJECT of learn - WHAT? + helps you learn English = SUBJECT Other examples: Swimming is a good exercise. - swimming is the SUBJECT of be Smoking costs a lot of money. - learning is the subject of cost
Gerund as a direct object Example: We can’t afford making the same mistake. - making the same mistake is the direct object of the sentence - We + can’t afford + WHAT? = DIRECT OBJECT Other examples: She dislikes learning English grammar. Have you finished working?
Gerund as subject complement Example: What I really like is travelling to other countries. - after a linking verb e. g. TO BE Other examples: Knowledge is learning something everday. My favourite occupation is reading books in English.
Gerund as object of the preposition Example: After waiting patiently for an hour I left the office. - waiting patiently for an hour functions as the object of the preposition - Preposition+gerund phrase = OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION Other examples: I am looking forward to meeting you. She managed to pass her exam by learning a lot. Handouts must be taken before leaving the classroom. The police arrested him for speeding.
Why do we use gerund phrases? generally descriptive and interesting can tidy up a messy sentence Examples: 1) On Sunday afternoons I habitually do laundry. Doing laundry on Sunday afternoon has become my habit. 2) On the weekend I clean my kitchen, which I enjoy. On the weekend I enjoy cleaning my kitchen. 3) My greatest challenge in school is to focus while I read. My greatest challenge in school is focusing on my reading. Focusing on my reading is my greatest challenge in
INFINITIVES the "to" form of the verb e. g. the infinitive form of: demand ---- to demand supply ---- to supply Examples: He needs to buy a new mobile phone. The teacher wants to explain the new lesson. can be made negative by adding "not. “ Examples: I decided not to go. The most important thing is not to give up.
INFINITIVES ARE USED: 1) After certain verbs, adjectives and nouns. a. Verb + infinitive They hope to reach the party on time. I want to try the new ice-cream flavour. b. Adjective + infinitive I’m happy to hear you are well. She’s delighted to see him. c. Noun + infinitive I’ve got some homework to do. It’s a high price to pay. It’s time to take a break. 2) To express a purpose I got up early to do homework. I have some letters to write.
Gerunds and Infinitives Some verbs (e. g. love, hate, start, prefer) can take gerund or infinitive, with similar meanings Examples: a) I love to eat chocolates. b)I love eating chocolates. a) I started to polish the car, but then decided not to. b) I started polishing the car, but then decided not to. a) I hate to get up early. b) I hate getting up early.
• A few verbs (such as ‘stop’, ‘remember’ and ‘forget’) can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive but the meanings are different. Examples: STOP They stopped having lunch at the restaurant. (They don’t eat at the restaurant anymore) They stopped to have lunch at the restaurant. (They stopped another activity in order to have lunch at the restaurant)
Gerunds and Infinitives REMEMBER Remember to bring your portfolio to the class tomorrow. (Don’t forget to bring your portfolio. . . ) I remember collecting marbles in our old neighbourhood. (Past memory: I remember that I collected marbles. . . )
Gerunds and Infinitives REGRET I regret to tell you that your application has been rejected. (To apologise for something bad. To inform something bad. This is used in more formal situations. ) I regret not saying goodbye before leaving. (To be sorry now for something we did in the past)
BE CAREFUL! ‘to’ can be part of the infinitive or it can be a preposition use gerund after the preposition ‘to’ Examples: I look forward to hearing from you. (√) I look forward to hear from you. (X)
GERUND INFINITIVE After verbs that express likes/dislikes: like, love, enjoy dislike, hate don't mind, can't stand . . . doing After verbs that refer to a future event : want, hope, intend would like, promise . . to do
GERUND After certain other verbs, such as : admit imagine appreciate involve avoid keep (on) consider mention delay miss deny postpone finish suggest . . . . doing INFINITIVE After certain other verbs, such as : afford help agree learn arrange manage choose offer fail refuse happen seem . . . to do
GERUND After certain expressions: it's no use it's no good there's no point in . . doing INFINITIVE After "too" & "enough": too difficult easy enough . . . . to do
GERUND After prepositions : interested in. . . instead of. . . good at. . . before. . . after . . . doing INFINITIVE After adjectives: glad (ex : glad to know. . . ) pleased (ex : pleased to meet you. . . ) disappointed (ex : disappointed to hear. . . )
Task 1: Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. It's obvious he's only interested in (make) making _______ money. 2. Anne couldn't find a taxi so I offered (drive) to drive ________ her to the station. to book 3. I managed (book) ________ two seats on the morning flight. to send 4. I promise (send) ________ you our new brochure as soon as it's available. 5. Peter was delighted (meet) to meet ________ a former colleague at the conference.
taking 6. I avoid (take) ________ the car whenever possible, especially in big cities. 7. We finished the job by (work) working ________ 12 hours a day. 8. Bob sent a report to the Chairman instead attending of (attend) ________ the meeting. 9. A lot of people dislike (drive) driving ________ at night. to speak 10. I intend (speak) ________ to my boss about your complaint.
TASK 2: Gerund or infinitive? 1. There’s a lot of work ______ (do) in the new building. 2. ‘What’s this for? ’ ‘It’s for _______ (cook) the vegetables. ’ 3. I really love _____ (play) with the children. 4. ______ (swim) is a good form of exercise. 5. I can’t stand _____ (do) the washing-up. 6. We managed ______ (pass) the exam by _____ (test) each other every evening. 7. We were getting tired, so we stopped _____ (have) lunch. 8. I was surprised _______ (not hear) about the new baby.
Task 3: Gerund or infinitive? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I want _____ (finish) work early tonight. I hate ______ (wait) for buses in the rain. I’m going to the café _____ (meet) Anna. Sam is really good at _____ (climb). Thank you for ____ (be) so helpful. I enjoy _____ (listen) to the radio while cooking. Let’s go now. I’m worried about _____ (miss) the train. He refused _____ (help) me.