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Gerunds always end in –ing They are used in the sentence as nouns and in every way that any other noun can be used: – Swimming is a good exercise. (subject) – Jane does not enjoy cooking. (direct object) – After eating, relax for a while. (object of preposition)
Gerund Phrases Like participles, gerunds can have a direct object. To find out whether or not the gerund has a direct object, begin with the gerund ask the following question: Gerund + whom/what? = direct object
Gerund Phrases Example: Giving the money proved a mistake. Giving + What? = money Money is the direct object of the gerund.
Gerund Phrases Gerund phrases can also have indirect objects: To find out whether or not the gerund phrase has an indirect object, begin with the gerund, locate the direct object, then ask the question to/for whom/what?
Gerund Phrase Example: Giving Jerry the money proved a mistake. Giving + what = money (direct object) Giving money to/for whom? = Jerry is the indirect object of the gerund phrase.
Gerund Phrases Gerund phrases can also have prepositional phrases in them: Giving Jerry the money on Friday night proved a major mistake. Since on Friday night tells when? The prepositional phrase functions as an adverb. It completes the gerund phrase.
Gerunds end in –ing Gerunds are nouns. To find out how they function as a noun, isolate the gerund or gerund phrase, locate the main verb in the sentence and the main direct object (if there is one). Ask the following question:
Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds What? + the main verb = subject Example: – Giving Jerry the money on Friday night proved a major mistake. – Proved is the main verb. Mistake is the direct object. – What? + Proved a mistake=Giving Jerry the money – The gerund phrase is the subject of the main sentence.
Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Subject + verb + what? = direct object We can’t afford making the same mistake. We + can afford + What? = direct object Answer: Making the same mistake is the direct object of the sentence.
Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Preposition + gerund phrase = Object of the Preposition Example: After waiting patiently for an hour Bill left the office. Waiting patiently for an hour functions as the object of the preposition.
Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Subject + verb + direct object + to/for what? = indirect object The tribe gave naming their children extreme importance. Tribe gave importance to what? = naming their children Naming their children functions as the indirect object of the sentence.
Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Subject + Linking verb + what? = Predicate nominative His hobby is collecting stamps. His mother is driving a car. Note: since the subject hobby cannot do the action of the verb (collect), collecting is a gerund. Collecting stamps becomes the gerund phrase and it functions as predicate nominative.
Summary of Noun Functions What? + main verb = subject Subject + verb + what = direct object Subject + Linking verb + what = predicate nominative Subject + verb + Direct Object + to/for what? = indirect object Preposition + gerund phrase = object of the preposition.
Summary Gerunds always end with –ing are always nouns can be – Subjects – Direct objects – Indirect objects – Objects of the prepositions – Predicate nominatives
Note Ask the key questions: – What + the verb = subject – Subject + verb + what = Direct object – Subject + linking verb + what = Predicate nominative – Subject + verb + direct object + to/for what = indirect object – Preposition + gerund = object of the preposition