GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES PART 1 GERUNDS GERUNDSFORM studying
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GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES PART 1: GERUNDS
GERUNDS-FORM studying playing giving swimming collecting
GERUNDS-USE 1. As the subject or object of a sentence • Collecting flowers is my hobby. • I like collecting flowers.
2. After prepositions • They are interested in studying archaeology. • They dream of becoming archaeologists. • They are crazy about discovering ancient cities. • They are tired of digging in the sand. Other expressions: good at/ bad at/ keen on/ bored with/ fed up with/ afraid of
3. After specific verbs such as: like hate dislike can’t stand mind look forward to enjoy prefer fancy feel like start stop continue Begin finish quit give up practice remember forget avoid can’t help
Examples • I enjoy watching football on T. V. • I hate travelling by bus. • She started playing the guitar two years ago.
Examples • He is trying to quit smoking. • Do you remember building sandcastles when we were kids?
4. Go + ing • We’re going shopping tomorrow. Other: go shopping go swimming go fishing go skiing etc. • I go swimming twice a week.
5. be/get used to + ing • I’m used to getting up early in the morning.
GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES PART 2: INFINITIVES
FORM see to go to play hear speak to work
FORM • Bare infinitive: see, hear, speak • Full infinitive: to play, to work, to go
FULL INFINITIVE - USE 1. After specific verbs such as: want agree accept refuse reject invite decide choose plan learn hope manage achieve promise ask offer
Examples • When I grow up, I want to become a musician. • He offered me a cold beer but I refused to drink it. • He invited me to go for dinner but I didn’t have the time.
Examples • It was raining heavily, so he offered to drive me home. • When they finish high school, they plan to go to university. • After walking for many hours, they managed to get to the top of the mountain.
2. In the structure: It is + adj. + full. inf. • It’s nice to see you again. It was hard to say goodbye after the holidays. It’s nice to It is hard to It is difficult to It is easy to etc.
3. In the structure: I am + adj. + full. inf. I am sorry to I am surprised to I am pleased to I am glad to I am happy to I am amazed to I am delighted to
Examples • We were surprised to have an unexpected guest in our house. Oops! I’m sorry to hurt you!
4. too…to/ (not) enough…to • This coffee is too hot to drink! • She is too tired to keep working.
• She hasn’t got enough time to finish the test. • He has got enough money to buy a new car. • He isn’t strong enough to lift that weight.
BARE INFINITIVE - USE 1. After the modal verbs: can, must, should etc. • He can speak Spanish. • You mustn’t smoke in a hospital.
2. After the verbs let, make