- Slides: 22
Gerund and Infinitives
Gerund and Invinitives A gerund = the –ing form of a verb (e. g. , talking, playing, understanding). An invinitives = to + the simple of a verb (e. g. , to talk, to play, to understand).
GERUND: PENDAHULUAN a) Playing tennis is fun. b) V S We enjoy playing tennis. c) S V O He’s excited about playing tennis. PRE P O A gerund is the –ing form of a verb used as a noun. * A gerund is used in the same ways as a noun, i. e. , as a subject or and object. In (a): playing is a gerund. It is used as the subject of the sentence. Playing tennis is a gerund phrase In (b): playing is used as the object of the verb enjoy. In (c): playing is used as the object of the preposition about.
GO + GERUND 4 -4 GO + GERUND a) b) Did you go shopping? We went fishing yesterday. Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express, for the most part, recreational activities.
GO + GERUND Go birdwatching Go hiking Go sightseeing Go boating Go hunting Go skating Go bowling Go jogging Go skiing Go camping Go mountain climbing Go sledding Go canoeing Go running Go swimming Go dancing Go sailing Go tobogganing Go fishing Go shopping Go window shopping
GO + GERUND LATIHAN 7 Buatlah kalimat dengan menggunakan kata yang disediakan. Gunakan subjek apa saja. Gunakan tense apa saja Example: Possible responses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. enjoy + go I enjoy going to the zoo. My friend and I enjoyed going to a rock concert last weekend. Where do you enjoy going in (this city) when you have some free time? Finish + study Go + dance Keep + work Talk about + go + swim Stop + fight Quit + rain Give up + ask Appreciate + hear Think about + not go
IN ORDER TO 4 – 10 INFINITIF DARI TUJUAN : IN ORDER TO (a) He came here in order to study English. (b) He came to study English. In order to is used to express purpose. It answers the question “Why? ” In order is often omitted, as in (b). (c) INCORRECT : He came here for studying English. (d) INCORRECT : He came here for to study English. (e) INCORRECT : He came here for study English. To express purpose, use (in order) to not for, with a verb. * (f) I went to the store for some bread. For is sometimes used to express (g) I went to the store to buy some purpose, but it is a preposition and is bread. followed by a noun object, as in (f).
IN ORDER TO *Exception: The phrase be used for expresses the typical or general purpose of a thing. In this case, the preposition for is followed by a gerund: A saw is used for cutting wood. Also possible: A saw is used to cut wood. however, to talk about a particular thing and a particular situation, be used + an infinitive is used: A chain saw was used to cut down the old oak tree. (INCORRECT: A chain saw was used for cutting down the old oak tree. )
IN ORDER TO LATIHAN 22 – ANALISIS KESALAHAN: perbaiki kesalahan dibawah ini. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Helen borrowed my dictionary for look up the spelling of “occurrence. ” I went to the library for to study last night. The teacher opened the window for getting some fresh air in the room. I came to this school for learn English. I need to get part-time job for to earn some money for my school expenses.
IN ORDER TO LATIHAN 23: Lengkapi kalimat dibawah ini. Nyatakan tunjukan dari tindakan. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I went to Chicago to visit my relatives. Tom went to Chicago for a business conference. I went to the market to________________ Mary went to the market for______________ I went to the doctor to_________________ My son went to the doctor for______________
TOO AND ENOUGH Menggunakan Infinitif dengan Too dan Enough a) That box is too heavy for Bob to lift. In the speaker’s mind, the use of too implies a negative result. COMPARE: In (a): too heavy = it is impossible for Bob to lift that box b) That box is very heavy, but Bob can lift it. In (b): very heavy = it is possible but difficult for Bob to lift that box. c) I am strong enough to lift that box. I can lift it Enough follows an adjective, as in (c). d) I have enough strength to lift that box. Enough may precede a noun, as in (d), or follow a noun, as in (e). e) I have strength enough to lift that box.
TOO AND ENOUGH Latihan 26 Pikirkanlah tentang sebuah hasil negatif, dan kemudian lengkapi kalimat dengan frasa infinitif. 1. That ring is too expensive. → Negative result: I can’t buy it. That ring is too expensive for me to buy. 2. I’m too tired. → Negative result: I can’t/don’t want to go to the meeting. I’m too tired to go to the meeting. 3. It’s too late. → Negative result: … Pikirkanlah tentang sebuah hasil positif, lalu lengkapi kalimat dengan frasa infinitif 1. That ring is very expensive, but it isn’t too expensive. → positive result: I can buy it. That ring isn’t too expensive for me to buy. 2. I’m very tired, but I’m not too tired. → positive result: …
(PASIF) BEHIND NEED Menggunakan Gerund atau Infinitif Pasif Di Belakang Need (a) I need to borrow some money. (b) John needs to be told the truth. Usually an infinitive follows need, as in (a) and (b). (c) The house needs painting. (d) The house needs to be painted. In certain situations, a gerund may follow need. In this case, the gerund carries a passive meaning. Usually the situations involve fixing or improving something. (c) and (d) have the same meaning.
(PASIF) BEHIND NEED Latihan: Isilah dengan Bentuk yang Tepat untuk Verba Di Dalam Kurung. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The chair is broken. I need (fix) …… it. The chair needs (fix)…… What a mess! This room needs (clean) …. Up. We need (clean) …… it up before the company arrives. The baby’s diaper needs (change) …… it’s wet. My shirt is wrinkled. It needs (iron) ……… There is a hole in our roof. The roof needs (repair) ……. .
LET AND HELP Menggunakan Bentuk Sederhana Di Belakang Let dan Help (a) My father let me drive his car. (b) I let my friend borrow my bicycle. Let is always followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive. (INCORRECT: My father let me to drive his car) (c) My brother helped me wash my car. (d) My brother helped me to wash my car. Help is often followed by the simple form of a verb, as in (c). An infinitive is also possible, as in (d). Both (c) and (d) are correct.
LET AND HELP Latihan: Lengkapi Kalimat Dibawah Ini dengan Frasa Verba 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Don’t let me forget to take my keys to the house with me. The teacher usually lets us _____________ Why did you let your roommate___________ You shouldn’t let other people ___________ A stranger helped the lost child ___________
MAKE, HAVE, GET Menggunakan Verba Kausatif: Make, Have, Get. (a) I made my brother carry my suitcase. (b) I had my brother carry my suitcase (c) I got my brother to carry my suitcase. FORM: X makes Y do something. (simple form) X has Y do something. (simple form) X gets Y to do something. (infinitive) Make, have, and get can be used to express the idea that “X” cause “Y” to do something. When they are used as causative verbs, their meanings are similar but not identical. In (a): my brother had no choice. I insisted that he carry my suitcase. In (b): my brother carried my suitcase simply because I asked him to. In (c): I managed to persuade my brother to carry my suitcase. (d) Mrs. Lee made her son cleasn his room. (e) Sad movies makes me cry. Causative make is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive. (INCORRECT): she made him to clean his room. ) make gives the idea that “X” forces “Y” to do something. In (d): Mrs. Lee’s son had no choice.
MAKE, HAVE, GET (f) I had the plumber repair the leak. (g) Jane had the waiter bring her some tea. Causative have is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive. (INCORRECT: I had him to repair the leak. ) have gives the idea that “X” requests “Y” to do something. In (f): The plumber repaired the leak because I asked him to. (h) The students got the teacher to dismiss class early. (i) Jack got his friends to play soccer with him after school. Causative get is followed by an infinitive. Get gives the idea that “X” persuades “Y” to do something. In (h): The students managed to persuade the teacher to let them leave early. (j) I had my watch repaired (by someone) The past participle is used after have and (k) I got my watch repaired (by someone). get to give a passive meaning. In this case, there is usually little or no difference in meaning between have and get. In (j) and (k): I caused my watch to be repaired by someone.
MAKE, HAVE, GET Latihan: lengkapi kalimat dibawah dengan kata di dalam kurung 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The doctor made the patient __stay__ in bed. (stay) Mrs. Crane had her house _____. (paint) The teacher had the class _______ a 2000 -word research papeer. (write) I made my son ______ the windows before he could go outside to play. (wash) Don got some kids in the neighborhood ______ out his garage. (clean)
Eskpresi Khusus yang Diikuti Oleh Bentuk –Ing dari Verba
(a) We had fun playing volleyball. We had a good time (b) I had trouble I had difficulty finding his I had a hard time house I had a difficult time Have fun Have a good time Have trouble Have difficulty Have a hard time Have a difficult time (c) Sam spends most of his time studying. (d) I waste a lot of time watching TV. Spend + expression of time or money + ing Waste + expression of time or money + ing + -ing + -ing (e) She sat at her desk writing a letter. Sit + expression of place + -ing (f) I stood there wondering what to do next. Stand + expression of place + -ing (g) He is lying in bed reading a novel. Lie + expression of place + -ing (h) When I walked into my office, I found George usingmy telephone. (i) When I walked into my office, I caught a thief lookingthrough my desk drawers. Find + (pro)noun + -ing Catch + (pro)noun + -ing In (h) and (i): Both find and catch mean discover. Catch expresses anger or displeasure.
Eskpresi Khusus yang Diikuti Oleh Bentuk –Ing dari Verba Latihan: Lengkapi Kalimat di Bawah Ini. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. We had a lot of fun ___playing___ games at the picnic. I have trouble _____ Mrs. Maxwell when she speaks. She talks too fast. I spent five hours _____ my homework last night. Martha is standing at the corner _____ for the bus. Michael is sitting in class ______ notes.