- Slides: 87
Germany Attacks Poland • Germany invades Poland (September 1 st, 1939 -October 6 th, 1939) – Soviet Union invades Poland two weeks later • Britain and France declare war on Germany on September 3 rd, 1939 – Mutual aid treaties with Poland – Now both are forced into war and Hitler has gained the initiative
Poland • Conquered in 3 weeks • Russian invasion from East a major factor. Germany from the West • Showed power of offensive • Balanced combination of motorized infantry, armor, and air under a single commander. • Fast moving tanks and airplanes, followed by infantry, then crush the enemy with overwhelming force
Invasion of Poland Map
Blitzkrieg was born in Poland • “Lighting Warfare” • Attack enemy at weakest point • Combination of lateral and forward movements • Coordinated use of airpower and tanks aide large scale attacking armies • Speed, Speed!!!!
Sitzkrieg-”Sitting War” • “Phony War” between France and Germany • No “real” fighting for 7 months (Strange Calm) • French Maginot Line opposite the German Siegfried Line, but neither side attacks. • April 9, 1940 Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark • Denmark falls in 4 hours • Norway falls in 2 months
Maginot Line vs Siegfried Line • Maginot Line- A line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along her borders with Germany and Italy • The fortifications did not extend through the Ardennes Forest which was considered “impassable” • Siegfried Line-”same as above” for Germany
Invasion of France • ENDS the “Phony War” • German’s 135 divisions, Allies’ 136 divisions; German divisions larger and better trained • Hitler goes around the Maginot Line, squeezing through the Ardennes Forest, an area where no one could attack through • 10 days later Germany is at the North coast of France • Were able to trap French and British troops at Dunkirk
Miracle at Dunkirk • • • June 4, 1940 - German army seized the French port of Dunkirk May 24 Hitler is told by the head of the Luftwaffe (Hermann Goring) that German planes could destroy Dunkirk defenders and that ground troops wouldn’t be needed. – Hitler halts ground attacks for 2 days allowing the Allies to take advantage and evacuate – Plan is not as effective as Hitler had planned • • Operation Dynamo- evacuation plan of Allied forces at Dunkirk This allows the British navy and merchant ships to rescue the Allies. Armada of 850 ships, yachts, lifeboats, etc. rescue 338, 000 allied troops. Hitler’s 1 st Big mistake because the allied troops evacuated from Dunkirk were able to keep fighting in WWII
The Fall of France • On June 22, 1940 France signed an armistice with Germany, agreeing to German occupation of northern France and the coast. – The French military was demobilized, and the French government, now located at Vichy, in the south (and headed by Marshall Henri Philippe Pétain), would collaborate with the German authorities in occupied France. • Refusing to recognize defeat, General Charles de Gaulle escaped to London and organized the French forces. • Britain now stood alone against Germany.
Battle of Britain • • • Great Britain-only major European country left in Hitler’s way Operation Sea Lion- Hitler's code name for invasion of Great Britain When- started on July 10 th, 1940 and lasted many months RAF (British Royal Air Force) vs. Luftwaffe (German air force) RAF Leader: Sir Hugh Dowding Luftwaffe Leader: Herman • Goal- to destroy the RAF (Great Britain’s Royal Air Force – RAF formidable opponent for Luftwaffe – Germany bombs British airport runways and British radar • Hitler becomes frustrated with slow progress, so he begins to bomb major cities (large populations) – Sept. 15 th, 1940 - Germany conducts large air raid on London
End Result • • • Hitler calls off plans for invasion in Sept 1940 and shifts to bombing campaign (“The Blitz”). Despite 3, 000 to 1, 200 advantage in aircraft, Luftwaffe is unable to defeat the RAF. – The British resistance convinced Hitler to postpone the invasion but he continued the bombing attacks. – Hitler calls off attacks on May 10, 1941 because he needed to use his bombers to invade Russia British won the Battle - British advantages: knowledge of territory, defending their homeland, radar and Enigma – Enigma Machine- used by British codebreakers to decipher German military tactics • Interesting Fact- Arthur Scherbius invented this machine (German engineer)
Operation Barbarossa: The German Invasion of Russia • Hitler believed the Russian Army could be destroyed in 3 months • 22 June 1941 - Hitler attacked (wanted to win before U. S. involvement) • Wanted LEBENSRAUM- living space • Initial German aims were to capture Russian oil fields and industrial areas in order to; – Support Germany’s war in the west – Break Russian economic power so she could not attack at some later date
Invasion of the Soviet Union • Hitler gets tired of waiting for Great Britain to fall – The obliteration of Bolshevism was a key element of Hitler’s ideology; however, it was a gigantic military mistake. – Much violence and destruction – Over 27 Million dead Russians • Operation Barbarossa, consisting of an attack army of 4 million men spread out along a 2, 000 -mile front in three massive offensives. • The German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost. For the next three years, 90 percent of German deaths would happen on the eastern front.
Russian strategy • Barter space for time; intended retreats • Scorched earth policy: military strategy of burning and destroying buildings, crops, or other usable resources so invading armies can not use them – This policy forced the Germans to overextend their lines of communications and supply. Forced Hitler’s exposed army to spend the winter in -40 degree weather. (Only had Summer uniforms) • Supply lines were so long that they slowed the advance • The massive size of Russia exhausted German troops • The Russian winter set in and the Germans did not have adequate equipment to fight a winter battle
Battle of Stalingrad • • • One of the largest and deadliest battles in WWII Location: Southwest Russia on the Volga River Importance: major industrial and communications center for the Soviet Union City named after Joseph Stalin making it very important to him, as well as Hitler due to his hatred for Stalin Leaders: • Germany- Field Marshall When: last part of 1942 and beginning of 1943 (Winter months= VERY Friedrich Paulus COLD) • Soviet Union- General Georgy Zhukov
The Battle of Stalingrad • Hitler believed that the Red Army had used up much of its manpower and materiel in the winter fighting. – Hitler vs. Stalin • Tanks became useless due to the rubble caused from massive Luftwaffe air raids (Battle began with German air raids) – German foot soldiers moved in following the air attacks • Soviets hid all over the city in buildings and even in sewers attacking the Germans using Guerilla Style Warfare – Took its toll on German troops • Soviet troops surround Germany troops in November, causing the Germans to run out of food and supplies
Turning Points of the War: The Battle of Stalingrad • The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point of the war. The German Army (Wehrmacht) had already lost 2 million men on the eastern front. • The Red Army crossed into Poland in January 1944.
Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of The Atlantic • Attempt by Germany to stop supplies reaching the Allies • Essentially conducted in five phases • Phase one (Sept. 1939 – June 1940) - German U-boat operations led to the sinking of numerous Allied ships • Phase two (June 1940 – March 1941) – Germans build special bombproof submarine pens – “Wolfpack” operations began against convoys • Phase three (April – December 1941) - Growth of US participation - 50 destroyers given to Britain, this allowed Russia to hold out against Germany - Germans initiate unrestricted submarine warfare
Battle of Atlantic Cont’d • Phase four (January 1942 – April 1943) -Germans attack shipping routes near US Coast - Air and surface-escorted interlocking Allied convoy system -Increased loss of German submarines, turning point of the battle • Phase five (May 1943 - May 1945) - Germans shift attacks to Mediterranean • Eventually U-boats are defeated because of close air cover escorts and advances in technology • Allied victory shifted the balance of the
The U. S. Aides Its Allies • War takes its toll on Europe, FDR begins to change policy, Pro-British. • Cash and Carry, a belligerent could pay in cash for U. S. arms. • Selective Service Act, 1940, registration of all men ages 21 -35 and to train 1. 2 million men. Isolationists upset. • Destroyers for Bases deal, U. S. gives G. B. 50 older destroyers in exchange military bases in the Caribbean
FDR and the War • 6 January 1941 Four Freedoms, speech, religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear. • Lend-Lease Act, March 1941, U. S. to extend credit to G. B. for buying weapons. • Atlantic Charter, FDR and Churchill: War Aims – – 1. No extension of territory. 2. Territorial self determination. 3. Destruction of Nazism. 4. International Organization to promote world peace. • September 4, 1941 German U-Boat fires on US destroyer – Roosevelt orders to fire on U-boats on sight
The Road to War • Japan sought to control of “East Asia” for additional markets and sources of raw materials – Invades China in 1931. – Invades French Indochina in 1940. • “Colonial” governments begin imposing embargoes to put brakes on Japanese expansion. • Japanese armed forces argue that they must strike to relieve pressure of embargoes. – Expect conflict, but buy time and surprise through negotiations. • US and UK focused on war in Europe.
Sneak Attack! • December 7, 1941 - 7: 55 am- 1 st of 2 attacks on US Fleet at Pearl Harbor • 107 ships in harbor- 1/3 of fleet. • 183 planes in 1 st wave. Aircraft carriers are 1 st target, but they aren’t there. • Battleship row is 2 nd target. • 167 planes in second wave at 8: 54 am. • Third wave called off because Japan feels that the 1 st two waves were successful enough. • 17 ships severely damaged • 180+ US fighters destroyed • 3 ships completely destroyed (USS Arizona) • 2, 403 Americans die (1, 177 on the Arizona) • 29 Japanese planes shot down.
Or was it? • Many feel that FDR knew of the attacks and wanted them. – Most Americans did not want to get involved in the war unless attacked. – He felt Japan was the answer • Imposed trade embargos on Japan (Metal and Oil) • Japan had to fight or accept US’s demands • With a puppet dictator and the military really in charge they chose war!
Internment of Japanese Americans • After the tragedy of Pearl Harbor, Americans were eager to act on racial stereotypes • Eventually, the government built special relocation centers in remote sections of the U. S. and evacuated about 110, 000 Japanese (including 60, 000 citizens of Japanese heritage).
Mobilization In the U. S. • The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce. – Government expenditures soared. • U. S. budget increases – 1940 $9 million – 1944 $100 million – Expenditures in WWII greater than all previous government budgets combined (150 years) – GNP 1939 91 billion 1945 166 million
Japanese Internment Camps
Mobilization for War • War time Economy, consumer goods to war materiel • War Production Board, managed war industries, set production priorities, pushed maximum output • Office of Price Administration, froze prices, wages, and rents, rationed meat, sugar, gasoline, and tires. • Financing the War, increased income tax, selling war bonds. • Office of War Information, controlled news about troop movements and battles.
Restoration of U. S. Prosperity • World War II ended the Great Depression. • Factories run at full capacity – Ford Motor Company – one bomber plane per hour • People save money (rationing) • Army bases in South provide economic boom (most bases in South b/c of climate) • The national debt grew to $260 billion (6 times its size on Dec. 7, 1941)
War and Society • African Americans- Double V Campaign, victory over fascism and victory for equality, over a million in the military • Mexican Americans, over 300, 000 in the military. Native Americans, 25, 000 in the military • Japanese Americans, 20, 000 served in the military, Internment camps Wyoming, Arizona, and Colorado • Women over 350, 000 served in the military, close to 5 million joined the workforce.
The Turn of the Tide in Europe • Defeat of the Axis Powers • The turning point of the war came in 1942 -43. • Allied victory in North Africa was followed by an invasion of Italy, which stopped the Axis powers’ string of victories. • The decisive theater of war, however, was the eastern front.
Strategic Bombing of Germany • Smashing the German war machine by bomber blitz similar to German tank blitz used in France and Poland • Until A-bomb, not sufficiently destructive to end war • 5 Main Targets • 1 -Military group - tactical, not strategic • 2 -Industrial group - would take years & many aircraft to achieve results • 3 -Urban group - create demoralization & revolt • 4 -Resources and energy group - coal, oil, etc. • 5 -Transportation group - means to transport war materials, i. e. , bridges, railroads, etc. • Groups (4) and (5) became dominant targets
Race to Berlin • D-Day was the turning point of the western front. Stalingrad was the turning point of the eastern front. • The British, U. S. , and Free French armies began to press into western Germany as the Soviets invaded eastern Germany. • Both sides raced to Berlin.
Surprise: Fictitious Armies • By spurious radio transmissions, the Allies created an entire phantom army, "based" in southeast England (opposite Pas-de-Calais) and alleged to be commanded by Patton. – In addition, on the night of the invasion itself, airborne radar deception presented to German radar stations a "phantom" picture of an invasion fleet crossing the Channel narrows, while a radar blackout disguised the real transit to Normandy.
Surprise: Ultra – At the same time, through the top-secret Ultra operation, the Allies were able to decode encrypted German transmissions, thus providing the Overlord forces with a clear picture of where the German counterattack forces were deployed.
Operation Overlord • Most massive and complex military endeavor in history • Numerous beaches were studied • Normandy or Pas de Calais
Pas de Calais - Advantages Pas de Calais. Disadvantages • Best air cover • Germans considered it the • Shorter sea voyage most likely avenue • Best beaches and of approach conditions • Close to Dutch and • Beaches were too narrow to support Belgium forts follow on operations
Disadvantages Advantages of of Normandy • Good beach conditions • Somewhat sheltered • Within air cover distance • Defenses were not strong • Port of Cherbourg could be quickly isolated and captured • Exits from the beach were difficult • Insufficient numbers of ports were readily available
Allied Plan • Eisenhower appointed Supreme Commander • Land on Normandy coast, build up and break out of beachhead • Attack on a broad axis with two armies; - one to attack east and north towards Germany - the other to link up with the southern France invasion to the south
D-Day • After taking control of North Africa and the Mediterranean, Allies are ready to invade Europe. • 1, 000 British Bombers pound the coast, but do little damage. • 23, 000 U. S and British paratroopers were dropped in France to take strategic towns and bridges. • 150, 000 troops landed on the beaches of Normandy. Largest amphibious assault ever. • 5 beaches- Juno, Gold, Sword, Omaha, Utah • 2, 000 American casualties on Omaha
Allied Plan Cont’d • Maintain an unrelenting offense for complete destruction of enemy west of the Rhine • Launch a final attack – a double envelopment of the Ruhr • Emphasis on the northern, left flank toward Ruhr and industrial Germany
The Battle of the Bulge • • • The Battle of Ardennes, (Belgium) Germany’s last attempt to stop the Allies' progress in the West 16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945 German forces intended to split the Allied line. G. B. and U. S. had 83, 000 men. Germany over 200, 000 G. B. and U. S. 80, 987 casualties(10, 276 dead, 23, 218 missing, 47, 493 wounded) Germany 84, 834 casualties (15, 652 dead, 27, 582 missing, 41, 600 wounded
Into Germany! • Americans closing in from the West, Russians closing in from the East. • 13. 6 million Russians and 3 million Germans die in the East • USSR- 27 Million civilian and military death. • April 1945 - Soviets push towards Berlin. • 80% of city leveled • U. S. pushed to the south. • Hitler knows the end is near and commits suicide with his mistress, Eva Braun. • Germany surrenders to US, not USSR
Victory in Europe • Mussolini was captured and killed by Italian partisans and Hitler committed suicide in April 1945, as the Russian troops took Berlin. • Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7, 1945 (V-E Day). • Fighting in the Pacific would continue until August.
The Pacific Theater • Within 6 months of Pearl Harbor, Japan had a new empire. – Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere • Japanese racial purity and supremacy – Treated Chinese and Koreans with brutality. • “Rape of Nanjing”- Japanese slaughtered at least 100, 000 civilians and raped thousands of women in the Chinese capital between Dec. 1937 and Feb. 1938. – Could have consolidated – “victory disease” • After Pearl Harbor, American military leaders focused on halting the Japanese advance and mobilizing the whole nation for war.
The Pacific Theater: Early Battles • American Forces halted the Japanese advances in two decisive naval battles. – Coral Sea (May 1942) • U. S. stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops to New Guinea • Japanese designs on Australia ended – Midway (June 1942) • Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again • U. S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft carriers, 332 planes, and 3500 men. – American cryptanalysts
The War in the Pacific • • • 1942 Japan Occupied: Korea, Eastern China, the Philippines, British Burma, Malaya, French Indochina, Indonesia, many islands west of Midway Island May 7 – 8, 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea Japan threatens New Zealand Australia, looking to maintain a stranglehold on the Solomon Islands United States and Australia hold off the Japanese attack. No real victor, sets the stage for Midway
Importance of Midway • The Japanese defeat at Midway was the turning point in the Pacific. – Japanese advances stopped. – U. S. assumes initiative. – Japanese have shortage of able pilots. • Censorship and Propaganda – News of the defeat was kept from the Japanese public.
The War in the Pacific, Midway June 4 -7, 1942 • The United States • Commanders: Chester Nimitz, Frank Fletcher, Raymond Spruance • Strength: Three carriers, about 50 support ships 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft • Casualties: 1 carrier, 1 destroyer sunk; 307 killed • Destruction of 4 carriers means that the U. S. can now go on the offensive. Crushing defeat for the Japanese • Japan, plan to destroy U. S. carriers, under the impression that they would only have to deal with two carriers. • Commanders: Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi • Strength: Four carriers, about 150 support ships 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes • Casualties: 4 carriers, 1 cruiser sunk; 3, 057 killed
The War in the Pacific • Island Hopping Campaign- isolate Japanese strongholds using Naval and air power, seize strategic islands along the Japanese supply line. • Begins August 1942, Marines land at Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, Gilbert and Marshall Islands, • 23 -26 October 1944 Invasion of the Philippines, Battle of Leyte Gulf, Japanese navy just about destroyed • February and March 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima, Mount Suribachi, U. S. Casualties 6, 821 dead 19, 000 wounded Japanese Casualties 20, 500 dead 200 captured • Battle of Okinawa, March – June 1945, largest sea-land battle in history, Last major battle of the war. U. S. Casualties: 12, 500 killed or missing 38, 000 wounded 33, 096 non-combat wounded 38 ships lost 763 aircraft lost Japanese Casualties: 110, 000 killed 7, 455 captured 16 ships lost 7, 800 aircraft lost
Guadalcanal • 7 August 1942 • First offensive action of the war. • Critical airfield. – First plane makes emergency landing on 12 Aug. – 2 USMC squadrons arrive on 20 Aug. – Only one “healthy” carrier left by end of battle. • Jungle causes significant casualties. – Over 1 k new cases of malaria per week. • Island “secured” in Feb ’ 43. • Japan suffers critical losses in all areas. – 25, 000 soldiers (1/2 in combat, ½ to illness)
The Beginning of the End in the Pacific • Yamamoto is assassinated by the U. S. (April 1943) • Loss of Saipan (August 1944) – “the naval and military heart and brain of Japanese defense strategy” – Political crisis in Japan • The government could no longer hide the fact that they were losing the war. • Tōjō resigns on July 18, 1944 • Intensive air raids over Japan – Iwo Jima (February, 1945) • American marines invaded this island, which was needed to provide fighter escort for bombings over Japan
Iwo Jima • • D-Day 9 Feb 1945 Airfields again the objectives. 450 ships Pre-invasion bombardment shortened from 12 to 3 days. – Weather limited effectiveness of even this. • Southern half of island in US hands by D+2. – Takes 34 more days to secure remainder of island (8 square miles total). • Nothing fancy; simple but costly. – “Throwing human flesh against reinforced concrete. ” • 36 days, 26 k US casualties including 6 k KIA. – 1 of every 3 US personnel that went ashore was wounded or killed. • 1 k of 20 k defenders survived • 2400 B-29 s w/ 27 k crewmen made unscheduled landings on island by the time the war ended. • 27 Medals of Honor awarded.
A Grinding War in the Pacific • In 1945, the U. S. began targeting people in order to coerce Japan to surrender – 66 major Japanese cities bombed – 500, 000 civilians killed • Battle for Leyte Gulf – Total blockade of Japan – Japanese navy virtually destroyed – Kamikaze (divine wind) flights begin • Okinawa (April, 1945) – All 110, 000 Japanese defenders killed – U. S. invaded this island, which would provide a staging area for the invasion of the Japanese islands. – If it is this bad at Okinawa, how bad will it get in Japan?
Manhattan Project • Albert Einstein – Developed theory of relativity and set in motion the process of developing the atomic bomb • Manhattan Project – Committee that looked at the feasibility of an atomic bomb – July 16, 1945 – they test the first atomic bomb in the desert at Alamogordo, New Mexico – The bomb left a huge crater in the earth and shattered windows up to 125 miles away
Decision to Drop the Bomb • The alternatives – Invading main land Japan – A naval Blockade and continued bombing – Softening of the idea of unconditional surrender – Dropping the bomb on a remote, deserted island to show its power • The decision – High casualties would result from invading Japan – The bitterness that Americans felt towards Pearl Harbor – The U. S. wanted to “flex its muscles before the eyes of the communist rivals” and the rest of the world
The Bombs • August 6, 1945, the first bomb, “Little Boy, ” was dropped on Hiroshima • August 9, 1945, the second bomb, “Fat Man, ” is dropped on Nagasaki • September 2, 1945, Japan surrenders
President Truman’s Speech August 9, 1945 • The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base. That was because we wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians. But that attack is only a warning of things to come. If Japan does not surrender, bombs will have to be dropped on her war industries and, unfortunately, thousands of civilian lives will be lost. I urge Japanese civilians to leave industrial cities immediately, and save themselves from destruction.
VJ! • Some Japanese still want to fight after Abombs, but Emperor Hirohito urges them to stop. • Surrender to General Douglas “god” Mac. Arthur. • His goal was to demilitarize Japan (reduce their ability to fight) • Second goal was democratization, creating a democracy • Become a Parliamentary democracy similar to Great Britain, with Emperor as figurehead. • Hirohito forced to admit that he was not God! • Article 9 - Japanes cannot make war. No Army, only SDF. We are still responsible for Japan.
Cost of War • Germany- 3 million combat deaths (3/4 ths on the eastern front) • Japan – over 1. 5 combat deaths; 900, 000 civilians dead • Soviet Union - 13 million combat deaths • U. S. – 300, 000 combat deaths, over 100, 000 other deaths • When you include all combat and civilian deaths, World War II becomes the most destructive war in history with estimates as high as 60 million, including 25 million Russians.
Aftershocks! • Many historic cities like London and Berlin, destroyed. • Countryside torn up. Crops? • Warsaw – 1. 3 M before the war. – 153, 000 after the war. • • 95% of Berlin was rubble. 4, 000 a day die in Berlin in 1945. Starvation, disease, etc. Communists (Russians) don’t leave Eastern Europe. Iron Curtain develops. Democracy v. Communism Cold War
Nuremberg War Crimes Trial • 22 Nazis put on trial for war crimes and “crimes against humanity. ” • Hitler and many top Nazis dead, but some still remain. • Reichsmarshall Herman Goering and Deputy Fuhrer Rudolf Hess among those tried. • 12 sentenced to death, Goering kills himself, escapes hanging. • “I was just following orders. ” • Only 1, Hans Frank, the slayer of the Poles, expressed remorse.
Truman Administration • Truman Doctrine: I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. • Containment: rather than liberating those countries already in the grip of Communism, the United States tried to keep it from spreading • Creation of NATO: U. S. , Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, G. B. , Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and later Greece and Turkey; form a front against Soviet Aggression. • Korean War, 1950 -53: Invasion of South Korea by North Korean communist forces in June of 1950
U. S. World Power • New Challenges faced the United States 1. Safeguard its security and National interests against powerful and unfriendly nations 2. Help protect the sovereignty of the nations of Europe, Latin America, and Asia without provoking hostile relations with them or the Communist Bloc 3. Establish ties to newly independent nations of Asia and Africa 4. Balance the cost of domestic programs with defense needs.
The Cold War Begins • U. S. A. and USSR have ideological differences. Capitalism v. Communism • Wartime allies out of convenience, common enemy. • Postwar goals – U. S. A. - fought for democracy and economic freedom in Europe and Asian, wanted to see these continued. – USSR- wants to rebuild to protect their interests. Create satellite nations- countries subject to Soviet domination.
Iron Curtain • Communist regimes in East Germany, Poland, Czech, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Romania. • Churchill asks US for help from Russians closing the Iron Curtain around any more nations in Europe. • Cold Warcompetition that developed between the US and the USSR for power and influence throughout the world. • Never directly fought, but almost.
Containment and the Truman Doctrine. • Containment- American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world, said that Eastern Europe was already lost. • GB can’t support its former colonies and allies, like Turkey and Greece. • Asks US for help. • Truman gives speech that becomes known as Truman Doctrine. • US WOULD SUPPORT NATIONS THAT WERE BEING THREATENED BY COMMUNISM • Truman Doctrine and Containment led to Korean and Vietnam Wars, Cuban Missile Crisis, etc.
Marshal Plan • US doesn’t want to make same mistakes as WWI. • Wants to rebuild not punish Europe for war. • Marshall Plan- program of American economic assistance to Western Europe to rebuild Western Europe and keep USSR out. • Named for General George C. Marshall
NATO and Korea • UN is powerless to stop communism b/c Russia has veto power. • Western European countries form North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • If Russia attacks one, they all join in. Problem? • Russia forms Warsaw Pact with other communist nations • Collective Security- policy in which nations agree to protect on another against an attack. • N. Korea (communist) invades S. Korea • US and UN intervene. • Mac. Arthur whips Koreans, but Chinese volunteers push Americans back. • Mar. Arthur second guesses the president and gets fired. • 38 th parallel
Eisenhower Era • Ike elected in 1952. • Believed in Domino Theory- theory that described the world as being overrun by Soviet Communism, as one country falls, so does the next. • If it starts, no way to stop it. • Russia develops Abomb in 1949 • Arms race develops between the US and USSR
1957 Sputnik – first satellite 1960 - 1 st man in space
Cold War Heats Up • Soviets first in space – Sputnik - First man-made satellite - 1957 – Yuri Gagarin - First man in space - 1961 • U-2 Incident - 1960 – Francis Gary Powers shot down over Soviet Union • Khrushchev's speech at the UN “We will bury you!” - 1960 • Berlin Wall - 1961 • Kennedy’s speech “Ich bin ein Berliner” - 1963
Cold War Bay of Pigs • Bay of Pigs Invasion - 17 Apr 1961 – 1400 invaders to overthrow Castro – Cuban Nationalists/Insurgents trained and backed by CIA – Poorly planned and poorly executed – complete fiasco • No popular support in Cuba • No US military support – Total failure • U. S. loss of face
13 Days in October § § 14 th – photographs of missiles on Cuba 22 nd – Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba 24 th – Soviet ships turn back 24 th – message from Khrushchev saying must find peaceful solution § 25 th – U 2 spy plane shot down § 26 th – 2 nd message from Khrushchev § 28 th – agreement reached
Cuban Missile Crisis American Response • “Quarantine” – Actually a blockade – Fleet directed to block further shipments – Demand to remove missiles – Soviet ships reverse course, 1 ship boarded “We’re eyeball to eyeball, and I think the other fellow just blinked” Dean Rusk, Secretary of State
o. October 25: At the UN, Adlai Stevenson directly challenges the Soviet ambassador to admit to the existence of missiles, when the ambassador refuses, Stevenson wheels out pictures of the missile sites ohttp: //www. history. com/media. do? action=clip&id=v 2 t 16
Chronology, Continued • October 27: Soviets demand that Americans also withdraw missiles from Turkey; Major Anderson’s plane is missing over Cuba, presumably shot down; U. S. recon plane strays over Soviet airspace…high tensions • Kennedy tells Khrushchev that he will accept the proposal of the 26 th, Kennedy tells his brother to tell the Soviet Ambassador that though the Turkey missiles would not be part of the bargain, they would be removed in time • October 28: USSR agrees to withdraw missiles