Georgia Farm 2 Fly Aviation and RSB Barbara

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Georgia Farm 2 Fly – Aviation and RSB Barbara Bramble – Chair of the

Georgia Farm 2 Fly – Aviation and RSB Barbara Bramble – Chair of the RSB Board of Directors and Senior Advisor, International Wildlife Conservation NWF 1 2015 November 2015

Biofuels, Biomass and Bioenergy Neither good nor bad by category It all depends –

Biofuels, Biomass and Bioenergy Neither good nor bad by category It all depends – on how and where produced There are valid concerns – inadequate legislation • Land use change and conservation of biological diversity • Water availability • Invasive species as new energy crops • Real carbon benefit? • Social concerns – land water rights, and others That’s why credible, practical, and affordable certification is crucial • NWF supports RSB for this purpose. 2 Nov 2015

Food versus Fuel is a Red Herring – Much Too Simplistic #I The real

Food versus Fuel is a Red Herring – Much Too Simplistic #I The real controversy is conflict over LAND and its many uses • Nature conservation, human habitation, etc. Land may be available • Low productivity/degraded pastures and cropland can be restored But humans don’t have a good history of using land carefully • Costs of land restoration often discourage investment • Native prairies and rangelands are being turned into monocultures 3 Nov 2015

Food versus Fuel is a Red Herring – Much Too Simplistic #II Food security

Food versus Fuel is a Red Herring – Much Too Simplistic #II Food security can be INCREASED via biomass and biofuels • Diversify crops and markets • Give value to cover crops and residues • Provide non-food, seasonally staggered sources of income • Provide energy for value-added products (critical for smallholders and local communities) • Stabilize grain prices – IF mandate for fuels is variable 4 Nov 2015

Residues can be Carefully Harvested – but Potential Impacts Remain Forestry and agriculture residue

Residues can be Carefully Harvested – but Potential Impacts Remain Forestry and agriculture residue harvests should protect wildlife and habitat from • Harvesting during nesting, cutting stubble too short, chemicals Soil structure and carbon should be conserved • How much residue should be left on the land? Use of cover crops and no till practices could maximize carbon retention • But most farmers don’t use these yet • Rules for these are uncertain/uneven 5 Nov 2015

Biomass for Energy – More Controversies Threats • Habitat loss – Bottomland Hardwoods and

Biomass for Energy – More Controversies Threats • Habitat loss – Bottomland Hardwoods and Longleaf Pine chipped up/for co-firing with coal • Whole trees – carbon debt for decades masquerading as ‘carbon neutral’ (during precisely the near-term period where emissions must come down) • Large scale power plants – may depend on huge “woodsheds” that exceed local residue capacity Solutions • Small diameter – use only thinnings and residues for energy/fuel • Allow long-lived trees to continue sequestration until harvested for long-lived uses – housing, furniture, certain plastics • Good forest management – FSC standard is RSB selection 6 Nov 2015

RSB Stakeholders 120+ organizations from 30 countries including 30 NGOs 7 24/06/2015

RSB Stakeholders 120+ organizations from 30 countries including 30 NGOs 7 24/06/2015

RSB Principles and Criteria Legal Social Environmental Management and technical GHG emissions Human and

RSB Principles and Criteria Legal Social Environmental Management and technical GHG emissions Human and Labor Rights Biodiversity Conservation Legality Rural and Social Development Land rights 8 Local Food Security Planning, Monitoring and Continuous Improvement Soil Water/rights Air Use of Technology, Inputs, and Management of Waste Nov 2015

Standard for Agricultural and other Residues Specific standard on residues and byproducts • Including

Standard for Agricultural and other Residues Specific standard on residues and byproducts • Including used cooking oil, animal fats, stalks/leaves, stover (corn stalks) • Municipal solid waste, forestry operations Upstream verification for agricultural residues • Ensure enough residues to maintain soil organic matter • GHG emissions limited to transport and conversion to fuel • Direct land-use change • Specific requirements for palm oil and tallow.

Diversity of Feedstocks & Products 10 © Copyright 2015 Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB)

Diversity of Feedstocks & Products 10 © Copyright 2015 Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) Nov 2015

RSB Approach to ILUC – Low Risk Biomass Problem: Indirect impacts occur when land

RSB Approach to ILUC – Low Risk Biomass Problem: Indirect impacts occur when land or raw materials are switched from traditional use as food/feed/fiber to a new use – for bioenergy or biomaterials. One result may be that the market demands replacement products, which raises the price and induces invasion of additional production areas - the famous “Indirect Land Use Change. ” RSB’s Solution: The Low Risk Biomass Approach • Developed jointly with WWF International and Ecofys • Encourages biomass production/processing which decreases the risk of displacement and competition with the food, feed and fiber sectors • Designed as a built-in complementary module for RSB-certified companies who wish to demonstrate a low risk of creating indirect impacts. 11 Nov 2015

Low ILUC Risk 3 scenarios 1. Yield increase beyond the baseline or double cropping/no

Low ILUC Risk 3 scenarios 1. Yield increase beyond the baseline or double cropping/no additional land conversion 2. Unused or degraded land restoration/avoid shifting cultivation and saves natural habitats 3. Wastes and residues/not requiring dedicated production from arable land 12 Nov 2015

RSB In Aviation • SAFUG: • Formed in September 2008; Active RSB Member •

RSB In Aviation • SAFUG: • Formed in September 2008; Active RSB Member • Pledge to support verifiable sustainability metrics consistent with the RSB Principles & Criteria; 32 % of jet fuel demand • IATA, Airbus, Sky. NRG, South African Airways: Active RSB Members • Boeing: smallholder programme • ITAKA Project in EU: promotes RSB certification • Commercial flights: KLM (2013) 13 © Copyright 2015 Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) Nov 2015

Aviation Industry Works with RSB • Global best practice – available around the world,

Aviation Industry Works with RSB • Global best practice – available around the world, for multiple feedstocks; complementary to national schemes • Independent 3 rd Party Audits provide assurance of meeting standards – such as food security, biodiversity, land water rights • Promotion of Smallholder production • RSB is leading a process of benchmarking with other credible standards 14 Nov 2015

Achieving Impact South Africa/SAA • Energy tobacco - ‘Solaris’ Marble Hall, Limpopo Region 15

Achieving Impact South Africa/SAA • Energy tobacco - ‘Solaris’ Marble Hall, Limpopo Region 15 © Copyright 2015 Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) Nov 2015

Final Message – Do More than One Thing at a Time So many smart

Final Message – Do More than One Thing at a Time So many smart projects solve more than one problem • Waste treatment service – and get fuel • MSW/Sewage/Algae-choked lakes • Restore land to productivity – and gain fuel • Cover crops and intercropping – several crops from the same land • Numerous ways to produce food and fuel from the same land resources • Moderate intensification of cattle and sugarcane in Sao Paulo, Brazil RSB recognizes these projects 16 24/06/2015

Thank you! Barbara Bramble, Chair of the Board bramble@nwf. org; +1 202 262 8236

Thank you! Barbara Bramble, Chair of the Board [email protected] org; +1 202 262 8236 Rolf Hogan, Executive Director Rolf. [email protected] org http: //www. rsb. org 17 05/08/2015