- Slides: 12
Georgia After WWII
Transformation of Agriculture • After WWII, Georgia soldiers returned from fighting, found state in middle of a rapid change • Agriculture was no longer the main economic activity – People left farming for factories during the war, increasing the size of cities – The demand for cotton fell • Peanuts, soybeans, and corn were planted in place of cotton • Improved farm machinery allowed fewer workers to farm larger areas – This sent more people to cities looking for jobs – By 1970, 60% of Georgia’s population lived in cities
Ellis Arnall • Ellis Arnall elected as Georgia’s governor in 1942, after Eugene Talmadge • Arnall fixed the problems with Georgia’s colleges created by Talmadge, and created the board of corrections to oversee the prison system • He abolished (got rid of) the poll tax and adopted a new state constitution in 1945 • When 18 -years olds began to be drafted for WWII, he argued that anyone old enough to fight for their country should be able to vote – He helped Georgia become first state to allow 18 -year olds to vote
The Development of Atlanta • • Atlanta became capital of the state in 1877 After WWII, businesses moved into the state The population grew, as did the size of the city Opportunities were improving for African. Americans Transportation grew in the 1970 s Several of Atlanta’s mayors contributed to this growth Major league sports moved into Atlanta in the 1960 s Atlanta grew into the financial, communication, and transportation center of the Southeast
Business in Atlanta • By 1954, around 800 new industries had appeared in Atlanta • Many northern companies moved south because of the warmer climate • The growth of aviation also contributed to the growth of business in Atlanta – By end of the 1950 s, Lockheed Martin (the former Bell Aircraft plant) was Georgia’s largest employer
Population Growth • More people moved into Georgia as the invention of air conditioning made summers more comfortable • Georgia’s population grew to over 4. 5 million by 1970 – Atlanta’s grew to over 1 million by 1970 • Atlanta went from being the 32 nd largest city in the U. S. to the 23 rd • African-Americans began moving back as better opportunities were becoming available – Discrimination largely disappeared, schools were integrated, and economic opportunities improved
Transportation in Georgia • Georgia had always benefited from its seaports and railroads • After WWII, aviation and interstate highways grew • In the early 1950 s, a network of freeways and highways linked Atlanta with rest of the Southeast and other areas of the country • In 1975, MARTA began building rail lines, beginning operations in 1979 • Atlanta’s airport began offering international flights in 1971
William B. Hartsfield • He served as Atlanta mayor for 24 years, from 1937 -1961 • Encouraged the growth of aviation and helped make Atlanta Southeast’s air travel hub (this is why the airport is named after him) • He helped lead the city ahead in civil rights by hiring African-American police officers, integrating public places, and eventually public schools
Ivan Allen, Jr. • Allen served as Atlanta’s mayor after Hartsfield, from 1962 -1970 • He continued Hartsfield’s peaceful approach to integration • During his terms, Atlanta saw the growth of skyscrapers and became home to a number of major league sports teams • Also pushed for MARTA to help improve transportation in Atlanta
Major League Sports • In the 1960 s, Atlanta dreamed of being a “big league city” but didn’t have the facilities • The chance came in 1964, when the Milwaukee Braves promised to move to Atlanta if a new stadium was built • In 1966, the Atlanta Braves began playing at Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium • That same year, the Atlanta Falcons began playing there as well • The Atlanta Hawks soon followed in 1968 • These teams have helped raise the prestige of the city as well as earned millions of dollars in revenue for the city’s economy
Questions… • 1) What was no longer the main economic activity of Georgia after WWII? • 2) Why did people leave farms during WWII? • 3) How did this lead to the growth of cities? • 4) Who became governor in 1942? • 5) What did Arnall do with the poll tax while he was governor? • 6) During Arnall’s term, Georgia became the first state to do what? • 7) Why were northern companies moving to Georgia? • 8) Who was Georgia’s largest employer by the end of the 1950 s? • 9) What invention led to population growth in Georgia?
Questions… • 10) Why did African-Americans begin moving back after WWII? • 11) What types of transportation systems grew after WWII? • 12) What industry did Hartsfield encourage while he was mayor of Atlanta? • 13) How did he lead the city in civil rights? • 14) While Allen was mayor, what grew up around Atlanta? • 15) What mayor saw major league sports teams move to Atlanta? • 16) Which teams played at Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium? • 17) When did the Braves and Falcons begin playing here? • 18) How have sports teams helped the city?