- Slides: 15
George Washington’s Presidency The first president of the United States of America
Judiciary Act of 1789 Significance: created a Supreme Court Decisions made by state courts could be appealed to Federal courts if a constitutional issue was raised “Supreme Law of the Land” We have the final say bruh
Executive Departments President Washington decided he needed help enforcing and carrying out laws Created 3 executive departments The heads of each department became known as the President’s Cabinet, or advisors to the president Executive Department Description Department Head Department of State Handled all foreign affairs Thomas Jefferson Department of War Handled all military matters Henry Knox Department of the Treasury Handled all money and finance Alexander Hamilton
Today’s Executive Departments Department of State Department of Transportation Department of the Treasury Department of Energy Department of Defense Department of Education Department of Justice Department of Veterans Affairs Department of the Interior Department of Homeland Security Department of Agriculture White House Chief of Staff Department of Commerce Environmental Protection Agency Department of Labor Office of Management & Budget Department of Health and Human Services United States Trade Rep. Department of Housing and Urban Development Council of Economic Advisers United States Mission to the UN Small Business Administration
Trouble Within the Cabinet Fed or Anti-Fed? Ideal Size/Strength of government? How should federal money be spent and what kinds of industry should support the U. S. ? Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson Federalist Anti-Federalist Strong central government Small, weak central government Trade and industry (common in Northern States) Agrarian (agriculture) (common in southern and western states)
Strict Interpretation vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution The Federal government can only do what the Constitution specifically says it has the power to do The “elastic clause” says that the Federal government has the authority to do whatever is “necessary and proper” to carry out the powers stated in the Constitution Anti. Federalist Not Stretchy! Federalist Stretchy!
The Bank of the U. S. The federal government should establish a national bank. The Constitution does not say the government can create a bank. The Federal government has the power to tax and needs somewhere to keep those taxes Hamilton (Federalist) Can you guys stop fighting? BTW I want the bank so it’s happening G. Wash
Two Political Parties Emerge Agricultural Economy based on industry and commerce Supported by bankers and commercial businesses in the North Strong Central Government Weak National Government Supported by farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South Jefferson (Democratic. Republican)
Quick Review: Shay’s Rebellion Farmers were losing their farms because they faced high taxes The farmers rebelled The federal government under the Articles of Confederation couldn’t do anything to stop the rebellion because they had no power This showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation!!
The Whiskey Rebellion The Federal government started taxing the production and manufacture of whiskey This made Whiskey more expensive and people started buying less. Whiskey manufacturers were furious and started a rebellion The Federal government under the Constitution was able to use it’s military to stop the rebellion before anyone was even killed This showed the power of the federal government under the Constitution!!
The French Revolution Affects the States Based on the same ideals of the American Revolution French had helped the Americans during their revolution so they expected the U. S. to return the favor We need your help in our revolution! The Americans and French had also signed an alliance treaty (a promise of friendship) so they definitely thought the Americans would help We helped you so you owe us! The We have an alliance so you have to help!
Washington Opts for Neutrality Sorry fam. We gotta stay neutral cause we’re still too new President Washington knew the nation was still too new and too weak to fight a war He declared that the USA would stay neutral and not pick sides in the French Revolution Not cool
Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain Gave the U. S. use of the Mississippi River and port of New Orleans $$$ Treaty $$$
Jay’s Treaty with Great Britain British agreed to leave their forts in the U. S. but could continue trading fur
Washington’s Farewell Address Don’t make permanent alliances with other countries Avoid political parties because they destroy national unity