Geology 1 of 25 Boardworks Ltd 2003 Teachers

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Geology 1 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Geology 1 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Teacher’s notes and Flash files Most slides contain notes to accompany the presentation. This

Teacher’s notes and Flash files Most slides contain notes to accompany the presentation. This icon indicates that the notes contain particularly detailed instructions or extension activities. To access these notes go to ‘Notes Page View’ (Power. Point 97) or ‘Normal View’ (Power. Point 2000/2002). Notes Page View Normal View This icon indicates that a Flash file has been embedded into the Power. Point slide. These files are not editable. 2 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Types of rock There are 3 types of rock: Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous 3 of

Types of rock There are 3 types of rock: Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous 3 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Igneous rocks Some igneous rocks have small crystals. These have cooled quickly close to

Igneous rocks Some igneous rocks have small crystals. These have cooled quickly close to the surface. These are hard rocks. An example of this type of igneous rock is basalt. Some igneous rocks have large crystals. These have cooled slowly deep underground. These are hard rocks. An example of this type of igneous rock is granite. In igneous rocks the crystals are in a random order (no pattern). 4 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Granite has visible crystals. What differences do you notice between these two igneous rocks?

Granite has visible crystals. What differences do you notice between these two igneous rocks? Basalt 5 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

The formation of igneous rocks Extrusive igneous rocks are cooled quickly so small crystals

The formation of igneous rocks Extrusive igneous rocks are cooled quickly so small crystals form (e. g. basalt). Sedimentary rocks volcano magma 6 of 25 Intrusive igneous rocks are cooled more slowly so large crystals form (e. g. granite). © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Igneous rocks Basalt 7 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Igneous rocks Basalt 7 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Igneous rocks Granite 8 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Igneous rocks Granite 8 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Basalt pillars These pillars were formed when lava cooled on the Earth’s surface. 9

Basalt pillars These pillars were formed when lava cooled on the Earth’s surface. 9 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Sedimentary rocks These are made from layers of sediment. They are grainy and crumbly

Sedimentary rocks These are made from layers of sediment. They are grainy and crumbly and may contain fossils. Examples of sedimentary rocks are sandstone and limestone. 10 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Sedimentary rock – sedimentation layers of sediments getting older 11 of 25 © Boardworks

Sedimentary rock – sedimentation layers of sediments getting older 11 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

The formation of sedimentary rocks These were formed from layers of sediment which were

The formation of sedimentary rocks These were formed from layers of sediment which were squeezed together. rivers new deposits sea/lake/river land 12 of 25 layers of sediments getting older © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Sedimentary rocks 13 of 25 sandstone limestone chalk © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Sedimentary rocks 13 of 25 sandstone limestone chalk © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Metamorphic rocks show small crystals in layers (bands). Metamorphic rocks are hard and smooth.

Metamorphic rocks show small crystals in layers (bands). Metamorphic rocks are hard and smooth. Examples of metamorphic rocks are slate and marble. 14 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Metamorphic rock - formation Metamorphic rocks are formed by the effect of extreme pressures

Metamorphic rock - formation Metamorphic rocks are formed by the effect of extreme pressures and temperatures deep within the Earth. This alters the structure of the existing rock. 15 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

The formation of metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks volcano sedimentary rocks are changed here due

The formation of metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks volcano sedimentary rocks are changed here due to heat and pressure. magma 16 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Metamorphic rocks marble slate 17 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Metamorphic rocks marble slate 17 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Metamorphic rocks Continent collision causes metamorphism and huge folds like this one in Scotland.

Metamorphic rocks Continent collision causes metamorphism and huge folds like this one in Scotland. 18 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Rock formation rocks are broken up by the action of weather volcano Igneous rocks

Rock formation rocks are broken up by the action of weather volcano Igneous rocks basalt rises to surface where it cools rapidly rocks rise to surface by uplift and erosion sea Sedimentary rocks mudstone Igneous rocks granites slow solidification magma 19 of 25 transportation and deposition high pressure and temperature Metamorphic rocks slate and marble melt © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Rock cycle 20 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Rock cycle 20 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Mar bl C Chalk e A Match the rocks with the correct label Basalt

Mar bl C Chalk e A Match the rocks with the correct label Basalt Gra e Slat nite B D 21 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Put the following rocks in the correct column Metamorphic Sedimentary slate chalk sandstone 22

Put the following rocks in the correct column Metamorphic Sedimentary slate chalk sandstone 22 of 25 clay Igneous basalt marble shale granite limestone © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Make a simplified rock cycle rock is broken down (weathered) and transported into rivers

Make a simplified rock cycle rock is broken down (weathered) and transported into rivers pressure and heat 23 of 25 rock is uplifted rock is broken down (weathered) and transported into rivers © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Rock cycle rock is broken down (weathered) and transported into rivers pressure and heat

Rock cycle rock is broken down (weathered) and transported into rivers pressure and heat rock is broken down (weathered) and transported into rivers 24 of 25 heat © Boardworks Ltd 2003

Identify these rocks A slate 25 of 25 B basalt C granite D chalk

Identify these rocks A slate 25 of 25 B basalt C granite D chalk E sandstone © Boardworks Ltd 2003