- Slides: 35
Geography What is it?
Geography • “Geography is the science of place. Its vision is grand, its view panoramic. It sweeps the surface of the earth, charting the physical, organic and cultural terrain, their aerial differentiation, and their ecological dynamics with humankind. Its foremost tool is the map. ” Leonard Krishtalka, Carnegie Museam of Natural History, 20 th Century AD
Which basically mean. . . • Geography helps us understand how people, places, and environments came to be • And how people, places, and environments affect each other
BASIC GEOGRAPHY • Geography is the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment.
• “Geo” is also Latin for earth. • “Graphy” is Greek for graph or map. • So…Geography is also the mapping of the earth.
Why do we need to know that? • Explains how we got where we are • Explains what is going on around us • Let’s us make better choices – cultural mistakes – provide for sustainable development – improve current conflicts and avoid others
Academic Division of Geography • Physical Geography • Cultural Geography
Physical Geography • Natural features on the surface of the earth and the physical environment – Climate – Ecosystems – vegetation and animals – Landforms
Cultural Geography • The study of people – – – – Beliefs Traditions Way of life Economic activities Government systems Religion Language Gender roles
5 Themes of Geography • • • Location Place Region Movement Human Environmental Interaction
Location • Position on the earth’s surface. – Absolute: use of a network of horizontal and vertical lines on globes and maps to find exact points – Relative: The use of cardinal and intermediate directions in giving location
LOCATION Where are we? • Absolute Location – A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location). – Paris France is 48 o North Latitude and 2 o East Longitude. – The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. • Relative Location – Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another. – Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block.
Place • Character of a place – Physical Characteristics: land, water, weather, soil, and plant and animal life. – Cultural Characteristics: anything that describes the people DESCRIBE is the key word in place.
PLACE What is it like there, what kind of place is it? • Human Characteristics • What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs. • How many people live, work, and visit a place. • Physical Characteristics • Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc. ), climate, vegitation, wildlife, soil, etc.
Regions • Regions make the study of geography more manageable. The world is often divided into regions or areas based on physical or human characteristics • 3 Types of Regions – Formal – Functional – perceptual
Formal Regions • A region defined by a common characteristic – Examples: Texas, United States, Corn Belt
Functional Regions • A central point and the surrounding territory linked to it – Example: Houston
Perceptual Regions • A region defined by popular feeling rather than objective data – Example: Dirty South, Bible Belt
REGIONS • How are Regions similar to and different from other places? – Formal Regions • Regions defined by governmental or administrative boundaries (States, Countries, Cities) • Regions defined by similar characteristics (Corn Belt, Rocky Mountain region, Chinatown). – Functional Regions • Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone coverage area). – Perceptual (Vernacular) Regions • Regions defined by peoples perception (middle east, the south, etc. )
Movement • People, goods and ideas move between regions • The earth is constantly moving – water (oceans), landforms, wind, etc.
MOVEMENT • How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? – Human Movement • Trucks, Trains, Planes – Information Movement • Phones, computer (email), mail – Idea Movement • How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines
Human/Environment Interaction The interaction of humans with the environment. This interaction can have both good and bad outcomes. This is one of the most important factors in geography.
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION • How do humans and the environment affect each other? – We depend on it. • People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation. – We modify it. • People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort. – We adapt to it. • We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine.
Human Environment Interaction
The five themes ask these questions: • Location – Where is it? • Place – What is it like there? (both physical and human) • HE(I) – What is the relationship between people and their environment? • Movement – How are people and places connected? • Region – How is a place similar to and different from other places?
Remembering the 5 themes • If you can’t remember what they are just ask MR. HELP!!! • M – Movement • R – Regions • HE – Human Environment interaction • L – Location • P - Place
What themes of geography do we see on this map COFFEE Top Ten Coffee Growing Countries
Let’s Review • What is geography? • Why is it important? • What are themes of geography? • What are examples of physical and cultural geography?