- Slides: 51
Geography of Religion
Introduction to Religion • Religion is a belief system and a set of practices that recognizes the existence of a power higher than humans. §Powerful influence on daily life.
Classifying Religions • Proselytic religions actively seek new members and aim to convert all humankind. • Ethnic religions are identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and do not seek converts.
Classifying Religions • Monotheistic religions believe in only one god and may expressly forbid the worship of other gods or spirits. • Polytheistic religions believe there are many gods.
Judaism, Christianity, & Islam • All developed among the Semitic-speaking people of the deserts of the Middle East. o o o Judaism: 4, 000 years ago Christianity: 2, 000 years ago Islam: 1, 300 years ago • Share a common hearth in southwestern Asia.
Judaism • First monotheistic religion. o Belief in ONE god. o Does NOT seek converts. • Spread widely and rapidly. • Numerically small. • Holy book is called the Torah. • Widely dispersed throughout the world. • Approximately 13 million adherents.
Judaism • Three major branches: • ORTHODOX: Traditionalists who observe most ceremonial laws and dietary restrictions. • CONSERVATIVE: Do not hold the importance of a Jewish political state, but emphasize the historical and religious aspects of Judaism. • REFORM: Liberal wing; culture and race oriented with little consensus on doctrinal or religious belief.
• Origin and Diffusion o Ethnic Religion (origins of Christianity) o Diaspora: In 70 A. D. , Romans forced Jews to disperse throughout the world. o Ghetto: During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews. Judaism
Judaism • Basic Precepts o Belief in One God o Torah - original 5 chapters of Bible o Prophecy of Moses o Coming of the Messiah still to come o Atonement accomplished by sacrifices, penitence & good deeds
• Created 1948 from a British mandate from Palestine. • Some people do not recognize its existence. • Long history of conflict with Arabs, particularly Palestinians. • Capital is Jerusalem, considered to be a holy place for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Jewish homeland
• Monotheistic. • Evolved from Judaism. • Moved east and south of its hearth area. • Routinely spread through force. • European contact with the “New World” brought Christianity. • World’s largest religion. • Segmented into three separate churches: o o o Catholics Protestants Eastern Christians Christianity
• Catholicism - largest branch o Headed by the Pope § direct link to God o Ceremonial - 7 sacraments § baptism, marriage, Eucharist, etc. o Very traditional Christianity
• Protestantism - (1517) Reformation era Christianity o No Pope needed § individual has direct link to God o Grace through faith rather than sacraments § forgiveness for sins through indiv. prayers o Spread though N. Europe and England § arose same time as 1466 Gutenberg Bible and the printing press Martin Luther
• Eastern Orthodoxy 5 th Century split o Rivalry between Pope and Patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul) § Rome remained center for Roman Catholicism o Rejected Roman Catholicism doctrine § by 1054 officially split o National Churches § Russian, Greek, Serbian Orthodox, etc. Christianity
• Spread in a manner similar to Christianity. o Proselytic faith. o Basis for sharia, or holy law. o Shiite & Sunni • Adherents are known as Muslims. • Worship one god, called Allah. • Founded by the prophet Muhammad. • Holy book is the Qur’an (or Koran). • Divided into two major groups: • Fastest growing world religion Islam
Islam • Basic Precepts Submission to the will of God (Allah) o Lineage - Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, & Mohammed (different lineage) o Holy Book - Koran - built on Old Testament o Five (5) pillars of faith o
• 5 Pillars of Faith o Creed: o “There is no God but Allah” Prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca o Giving to the poor o Month of Rammadan o Pilgrimage to Mecca o
Hinduism • First religion to emerge (about 4, 000 years ago). • 800 million adherents. • Closely tied to Indian culture. • One supreme god: Brahman. • Many manifestations are worshipped. • Highly tolerant of other religions. • Belief in reincarnation. • Forms of worship vary regionally.
Buddhism • Appeared around 500 B. C. • Proselytic. • Evolved from Hinduism as a reform religion. • Most widespread religion in Asia. • Contains several regional forms: o o Tibetan Buddhism Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism • Four noble truths: • Life is full of suffering. • Desire is the cause of this suffering. • Cessation of suffering comes with the quelling of desire. • Proper conduct and meditation permits the individual to overcome desire. • Enlightenment is known as nirvana. • Individuals who achieve nirvana are known as Buddhas.
Comparing Key Points: Focus on Judaism, Christianity, & Islam • ASSIGNMENTS: o 1. Comparison of Monotheistic Religions (Grid) o 2. Venn Diagram § Must list at least 3 characteristics in each section. o 3. Read/Notes from Barron’s (pages 128 -133)
Spatial Patterns • Religious diffusion stems primarily from two major hearth areas. • A culture hearth is a focused geographic area where important innovations are born and from which they spread.
Spatial Patterns • 1. Semitic Hearth • 2. Indus-Ganga Hearth
Semitic Religious Hearth • Judaism, Christianity, & Islam all stem from the Middle East (or southwestern Asia). • Judaism & Christianity share a common history in Jerusalem and modern day Israel. • Islam arose in western Arabia near Medina and Mecca.
Religious Diffusion • Religions spread by both relocation and expansion diffusion. EXPANSION DIFFUSION Hierarchical Contagious Ideas are implanted at the top of society (typically in major cities) Ideas spread by personto-person contact without regard for social status
Diffusion of Christianity • Christian faith tells followers to “teach all nations. ” • Spread initially through the Roman Empire. • Strong road system. • Missionaries often targeted kings or tribal leaders. • Later spread through contact conversion, or the everyday interactions between believers and nonbelievers.
Diffusion of Islam • Islam spread from its hearth in a more militaristic manner. • Spread westward across North Africa. • Later spread through trade routes to Philippines, Indonesia, and interior China. • Why is Islam the world’s fastest growing religion?
Indus-Ganga Hearth • Hinduism and Buddhism spread from their core in Northern India. • Buddhism branched off of Hinduism. • Both of these religions have found their way to the United States. How?
Religious Missions • Deliberate efforts to change the religious views of a person or peoples. • Often accompanied by good deeds. • Sometimes considered propaganda and persuasion. • What are the effects of globalization on the diffusion of religion?
Barriers to Diffusion • Barriers to religious diffusion are primarily permeable. Time-Distance Decay • Diffusion weakens with increasing distance from their places of origin and with the passage of time.
Rise of Secularism • Secularism is the indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas. • Millions of people in the world practice no religion at all. • Religious statistics do not account for “nonpracticing” members.
Rise of Secularism • Levels of secularism vary throughout the world. • “Religion is very important to me. ” • 30% of Canadians agreed. • 59% of Americans agreed. • Places with higher immigrant populations tend to have higher rates of religious adherence. • Why? • Secularism has been on the rise in the past century. • Why?
Rise of Secularism • Atheists • Do not believe in the existence of any gods. • Agnostics • Dieties may exist, but we do not have knowledge of them.
Religious Structures • Most religions have some sort of physical structure devoted to worship. • Vary in size, function, architectural style, and degree of ornateness.
Landscapes of the Dead • Beliefs about the afterlife dictate how the dead leave their mark. • Cremation • Cemeteries
Religion & the Economy • • Religion can guide commerce Determine what crops are grown Foods and beverages consumed Types of employment
Religious Pilgrimage • Pilgrimages are journeys to sacred places. • Particularly important to follows of Islam, Hinduism, Shintoism, and Roman Catholicism.
Religious Conflict • Many countries straddle interfaith boundaries that cross between the world’s major faiths. • Intrafaith boundaries are within a single major faith (i. e. Christian divisions like Protestants vs. Catholics)
Israel & Palestine • One of the most heated religious conflicts today. • Following World War I, British were given control over Palestine. • Most people living there were Muslims. • British wanted to created a Zionist state. • ZIONISM is the movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine. • Starting in 1947, Jews and Muslims engaged in open warfare.
Israel & Palestine • Holocaust/World War II • • • Muslims reacted negatively. Peace talks Israeli control Palestinian terrorism Divine right • Is this an Interfaith or Intrafaith boundary?
Religious Conflicts Read the text to understand your assigned religious conflict. Your group should discuss: • GROUPS. What religious groups are in conflict? • WHY? What are the reasons for the conflict and why do they exist? • HOW? How has the conflict manifested itself? • TYPE? Is the conflict a result of an interfaith boundary or an intrafaith boundary? Be prepared to present your findings to the class. EVERYONE is responsible for reading the section on Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism at the end of the test.
Review Quiz Questions Your group must create 10 questions from the religion unit. Your questions should: • Vary in difficulty. You should have at least a few “easy” questions and a few “hard” questions. • Vary in type. You should ask a combination of multiple choice, true/false, and short answer questions. • Vary in content. You should cover all of the lectures and assigned readings equally. Type your questions and save them to the flash drive. Put a * next to the correct answer for each question. Label with all group members’ names.