Geography and Geology Notes Five Themes of Geography

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Geography and Geology Notes • Five Themes of Geography: Geography 1. Location – The

Geography and Geology Notes • Five Themes of Geography: Geography 1. Location – The absolute or relative site, or position of something. 2. Place – Refers to the physical and human factors that make one area different from another. 3. Region – An area that has certain shared characteristics that set it apart. 4. Movement – The shifting of people, goods, and ideas from one place to another. 5. Human-Environment Interaction – The ways people interact with their surroundings, such as building a dam.

Map – A visual representation of the earth’s surface. Cartographer – A map maker.

Map – A visual representation of the earth’s surface. Cartographer – A map maker. Physical Map– Show the earth’s landforms and bodies of water.

Political Map – Show boundaries that divide one political entity from another. (Most Utah

Political Map – Show boundaries that divide one political entity from another. (Most Utah Cities are found near rivers or lakes). Cardinal Directions – The main directions (North, South, East and West). Compass – Used on a map to show the Cardinal Directions.

Latitude – Imaginary horizontal lines joining points on the Earth's surface that measure distance

Latitude – Imaginary horizontal lines joining points on the Earth's surface that measure distance north or south of the equator. Equator – The line that marks 0˚ latitude.

Longitude – Imaginary vertical lines joining points on the Earth's surface that measure distance

Longitude – Imaginary vertical lines joining points on the Earth's surface that measure distance east or west of the Prime Meridian – The line of 0˚ longitude that passes through Greenwich, England. Hemisphere – Half of a sphere. Grid – A series of horizontal and vertical lines used to find the coordinates of a point.

Key – An area on the map where map symbols are explained, often called

Key – An area on the map where map symbols are explained, often called the legend. Symbol – Something on a map that stands for something else.

Elevation – The height above a certain point, especially sea level. Scale – A

Elevation – The height above a certain point, especially sea level. Scale – A place on a map usually part of the legend that compares the size of the model with the size of the area being represented.

Utah’s 2 Drainage Regions • Bonneville Drainage Region and Colorado River Drainage Region. Bonneville

Utah’s 2 Drainage Regions • Bonneville Drainage Region and Colorado River Drainage Region. Bonneville Drainage Region Colorado River Drainage Region.

Utah has 3 Land Regions • Utah’s Land Regions – Colorado Plateau, Rocky Mountain

Utah has 3 Land Regions • Utah’s Land Regions – Colorado Plateau, Rocky Mountain and Great Basin.

Utah Geology • Geologic Eras: Precambrian – 600 Million Years Ago - Earliest known

Utah Geology • Geologic Eras: Precambrian – 600 Million Years Ago - Earliest known geologic era. Paleozoic Mesozoic – 570 -240 Million Years Ago - Shallow Seas - Trilobites - Reptiles live in the seas. – 240 -65 Million Years Ago - Dinosaurs - Sedimentary Rock formed Cenozoic – 65 Million Years Ago to Present - Mammals - Mountains and plateaus rise - Glaciers - Lake Bonneville - Humans

Other Utah Geology Notes • 3 Types of Rock: – – – • •

Other Utah Geology Notes • 3 Types of Rock: – – – • • • Sedimentary – Sandstone and Limestone Igneous – Granite and Basalt Metamorphic – Quartzite and Slate Coal – important mineral for Utah’s economy; sold to places as far away as Japan. Some of Utah’s canyons were formed by glaciers. V=River Canyon, U=Glacial Canyon Today all of Utah’s volcanoes are extinct. Salt mining is a billion dollar industry in Utah. The Great Salt Lake is the largest salt water lake in the western hemisphere and no water flows out of it.

Other Utah Geology Notes: • Lake Bonneville covered most of Utah; Great Salt Lake,

Other Utah Geology Notes: • Lake Bonneville covered most of Utah; Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake and Sevier Lake were part of Lake Bonneville. • Fossils are formed by dead plants and animals. • The Utahraptor was discovered in 1992 in Arches National Park. • Trilobites are Utah’s oldest animal fossil. • Utah’s two biggest faults are the Sevier Fault and the Wasatch Fault. • Wind, rain, floods and earthquakes cause natural changes to the land.