Genetics Mitosis Makes body cells Daughter cells are

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Genetics

Genetics

Mitosis • Makes body cells • Daughter cells are identical to parent cells •

Mitosis • Makes body cells • Daughter cells are identical to parent cells • Asexual

Meiosis • Makes sex cells ( gametes, sperm/ egg) • Daughter cells are different

Meiosis • Makes sex cells ( gametes, sperm/ egg) • Daughter cells are different from parent cells • Sexual

Steps of Cell Cycle • • • Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis

Steps of Cell Cycle • • • Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis

Interphase • Cell grows, DNA doubles

Interphase • Cell grows, DNA doubles

Prophase • DNA condenses into chromosomes

Prophase • DNA condenses into chromosomes

Metaphase • DNA in Middle of cell

Metaphase • DNA in Middle of cell

Anaphase • DNA moves apart toward opposite ends of the cell

Anaphase • DNA moves apart toward opposite ends of the cell

Telophase • Two Nuclei

Telophase • Two Nuclei

Cytokinesis • Cell Splits, dividing into 2 cells

Cytokinesis • Cell Splits, dividing into 2 cells

Crossing Over • Gives variation in sexually reproducing species

Crossing Over • Gives variation in sexually reproducing species

DNA • Double stranded • Made of nucleotides

DNA • Double stranded • Made of nucleotides

DNA • Each nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base

DNA • Each nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base

DNA • The nitrogen bases are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine • A pairs with

DNA • The nitrogen bases are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine • A pairs with T • C pairs with G

DNA Replication • When 1 piece becomes 2

DNA Replication • When 1 piece becomes 2

RNA • Single stranded • The base Uracil replaces Thymine • A pairs with

RNA • Single stranded • The base Uracil replaces Thymine • A pairs with U • C pairs with G

3 kinds- m. RNA, r. RNA, t. RNA • m. RNA- is the message

3 kinds- m. RNA, r. RNA, t. RNA • m. RNA- is the message • r. RNA-Reads the message • t. RNA- takes the amino acid to the growing protein chain

Transcription • DNA makes m. RNA • Happens in the nucleus

Transcription • DNA makes m. RNA • Happens in the nucleus

Translation • RNA makes the Protein • Happens at the ribosome • All 3

Translation • RNA makes the Protein • Happens at the ribosome • All 3 types of RNA help

Mutation • A random change in the base (letters)

Mutation • A random change in the base (letters)

DNA Technology

DNA Technology

Amniocentesis • Takes fluid from pregnant mom, karyotype performed on skin cells taken from

Amniocentesis • Takes fluid from pregnant mom, karyotype performed on skin cells taken from fluid

Karyotype • Picture of the chromosomes of the baby, can tell if baby has

Karyotype • Picture of the chromosomes of the baby, can tell if baby has certain problems based on chromosome number and location

Down Syndrome • Caused by trisomy (3 chromosomes) at #21

Down Syndrome • Caused by trisomy (3 chromosomes) at #21

Gel Electrophoresis • DNA fingerprint, band pattern, crime and paternity

Gel Electrophoresis • DNA fingerprint, band pattern, crime and paternity

Transgenic Organisms • Organism with DNA from 2 different species • Example grapples, human

Transgenic Organisms • Organism with DNA from 2 different species • Example grapples, human insulin bacteria

Cloning • Making identical genetic copies of an organism • Dolly

Cloning • Making identical genetic copies of an organism • Dolly

Punnett Squares

Punnett Squares

Trait • Characteristic • Eye color, hair color

Trait • Characteristic • Eye color, hair color

Allele • Options • Brown, blue, green. Hazel eye color

Allele • Options • Brown, blue, green. Hazel eye color

Dominant • Trait the shows

Dominant • Trait the shows

Recessive • Trait that hides, unless you get it from both parents

Recessive • Trait that hides, unless you get it from both parents

Homozygous/Pure • Both traits the same • TT or tt

Homozygous/Pure • Both traits the same • TT or tt

Heterozygous/Hybrid • Both traits are different • Tt

Heterozygous/Hybrid • Both traits are different • Tt

Phenotype • Physical appearance • Tall, Blue AA Aa aa

Phenotype • Physical appearance • Tall, Blue AA Aa aa

Genotypes • Types of genes • Homozygous recessive (rr) GG – Homozygous Dominant Gg

Genotypes • Types of genes • Homozygous recessive (rr) GG – Homozygous Dominant Gg – Heterozygous gg – Homozygous Recessive

Evolution • • • Charles Darwin Overproduction of offspring Variation Competition Survival of the

Evolution • • • Charles Darwin Overproduction of offspring Variation Competition Survival of the Fittest

Evidences of Evolution • Fossils • Comparative Anatomy

Evidences of Evolution • Fossils • Comparative Anatomy

Comparative Anatomy • Homologous Structures- same structure, different function. • Ex. Human arm, whale

Comparative Anatomy • Homologous Structures- same structure, different function. • Ex. Human arm, whale flipper, bird wind

Comparative Anatomy • Analogous Structures – Different structure, same function • Ex. Bird wing,

Comparative Anatomy • Analogous Structures – Different structure, same function • Ex. Bird wing, butterfly wing

Comparative Anatomy • Vestigial Structure- organ no longer used, gets smaller • Ex. Human

Comparative Anatomy • Vestigial Structure- organ no longer used, gets smaller • Ex. Human appendix and tailbone

Evidences of Evolution • Embryology-Comparing embryos of different species • Biochemistry- comparing DNA sequences

Evidences of Evolution • Embryology-Comparing embryos of different species • Biochemistry- comparing DNA sequences