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Genetically Modified Organisms Science CAPT Review
http: //video. foxnews. com/v/25424 13631001/what-aregmos/#sp=show-clips
What is a GMO? • GMO: genetically modified organism, created through transgenic engineering. CONVENTIONAL FARMING ORGANIC FARMING TRANSGENIC ENGINEERING • Traditional selective breeding • New method of breeding method plants and animals. • Sprays chemicals to reduce pests (herbicides, pesticides, insecticides, fungicides). • Organic pesticides are used to • Desired genes from one reduce pests species can be transferred to a different species. • Chemical fertilizers • Organic fertilizer, manure • Animals are given antibiotics & growth hormones • Animals graze on grass or organic feed • The modified species will produce a new protein that will promote the desired characteristic. • No chemical additives are added to processed foods • The use of GMO’s is prohibited in organic products.
Example 1: Golden Rice White rice has been modified to have a gene that produces “beta-carotene” (Vitamin A). It was created to help reduce malnourished children from developing blindness.
Example 2: Ht Crops (corn, soy, cotton, etc). have been modified to become resistant to herbicide chemicals.
Example 3: Bt Crops (corn, soy, cotton, etc). have been modified to become resistant to a worm that is a pest. The crops produce their own pesticide to kill the worm.
Example 4: Glo Fish Pet fish that have been modified to have a jellyfish “glow” gene.
How are GMO’s created? 1. A plasmid is removed from a bacteria cell. 2. DNA is removed from a human cell. 3. Using a restrictive enzyme, the desired gene is isolated from human DNA 4. The plasmid is snipped open using the same restrictive enzyme (to make a place to insert the human DNA) 5. The human DNA fragment sticky ends align with the plasmid sticky ends 6. The plasmid is inserted into a bacteria cell. 7. Bacteria reproduce and contain the human DNA inserted into the plasmid.
Potential benefits & risks of GMOs
To Protest or Not to Protest GMOs? https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=0 WSCs 78 Gl 9 M
Suggested Reasons to Grow/Eat Genetically Modify Organisms #1. Nutritionally enhance food products (ex. Golden rice) Is 10% better than nothing?
Suggested Reasons to Grow/Eat Genetically Modify Organisms #2. Slow down ripening of fruits/vegetables (ex. Flavr Savr ® tomato)
Suggested Reasons to Grow/Eat Genetically Modify Organisms #3. New Tolerance to some of the following possibilities: – – Pathogenic bacteria or viruses (ex. Papaya) Herbicides (ex. Roundup Ready ® corn) Insects (ex. Bt Corn) Harsh weather (drought, cold weather)
Suggested Reasons Grow/Eat Genetically Modify Organisms #4. Increases food production (growth rate and yield)
Suggested Reasons Grow/Eat Genetically Modify Organisms #5. Other “convenient” / “cosmetic” needs (ex. Arctic apple ®, Glo Fish ® )
Suggested Reasons AGAINST Genetically Modify Organisms gene pollen-pollution #1. Risk of / caused by cross pollination. Pollen from a GM plant is passed along to another plant by wind, bees or other natural uncontrollable ways.
Suggested Reasons AGAINST Genetically Modify Organisms #2. Risk of unintended harm to other plants and animals. e. g. non-targeted wildlife taking GM crops
Suggested Reasons AGAINST Genetically Modify Organisms #3. Risk of unknown side effects for humans.
Suggested Reasons AGAINST Genetically Modify Organisms #4. Risk of creating a monopoly and dependence of farmers on companies who are seeking control of the world’s commercial seed supply. This is sometimes due to patent laws.
CAPT Review Questions & Answers