- Slides: 10
Genetically Modified Bacteria
What are GMO’s? • Genetically Modified Organisms are organisms that have been genetically altered to carry and/or produce a certain necessary gene. This is done by inserting the required gene into the organism’s DNA. • There are three types of GMO’s: animals, plants and bacteria We focused on bacteria.
How are GMO’s made? • A specific gene is chosen and then extracted from DNA using a restriction enzyme. • This gene is then inserted into a bacterium. Since these are single celled organisms the gene only has to be inserted once and because bacteria multiply quickly, they are an ideal candidate for mass production of a specific gene.
Why is it relevant to society? • GM bacteria are relevant to society, because they are a fast and easy way to make a lot of a selected gene. • They can be used to cure and prevent sicknesses, to create medicines, to improve the environment in numerous ways and to help in many other ways.
Examples of GM Bacteria Being Used GM Bacteria Creates Living Photographs E. coli are normally found in the dark confines of the human gut and wouldn't normally sense light, so the students had to engineer the unicellular machines to work as a light sensitive photo-capturing surface. Much as pixels on a computer screen switch between white and black, each bacterium either produced a black pigment or didn't, depending on whether it was growing in a light or dark place in the dish. The resulting images are a collection of all the bacteria responding to the pattern of light.
Examples of GM Bacteria Being Used GM bacteria eats cancer When tumours grow to a size greater than that of a pinhead the centre of the cancerous growth becomes starved of oxygen due to the lack of organized blood capillaries feeding the growth. The genetically modified C. novyi-NT bacterium thrives in these oxygen -deficient areas, which are unique to cancerous growths, and starts to kill the tumour from the inside out. Normal surrounding cells were largely unaffected as were the exterior of the tumours as the bacteria don't like the more oxygen rich conditions.
Examples of GM Bacteria Being Used Genetically Altered Bacteria Could Block Malaria Transmission Scientists have discovered a way to help stop the spread of malaria by genetically altering a bacterium that infects about 80 percent of the world’s insects. Malaria is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites and kills more than a million people every year. The ubiquitous Wolbachia bacteria are able to alter male insects so that they can only reproduce with female insects also infected with the bacteria, resulting in more infected offspring. Researchers believe that by using genetically altered Wolbachia bacteria, they could spread genes that leave mosquitoes unable to transmit the malaria parasite.
Ethic and Risk Considerations • People feel that eventually unintended harmful and dangerous organisms will be created • Could overpower wild species • Reduces living beings to the status of manufactured products • The use of GMOs in a certain environment could have different impacts in a different environment • Maybe the transgene could escape to any other species, either to non -GM individuals of the same species or to closely related species Ex. Scientists in Oregon found that a genetically engineered soil microorganism, Klebsiella planticola, completely killed essential soil nutrients
Benefits of GM Bacteria • In the Environment- Possible control of weeds and feral pest animals, use of GMOs that reduce the use of toxic chemicals, GMOs to decontaminate toxic waste sites, GMOs in environmental friendly power • In Farms- Improved nutrition for people, increased environmental protection through the reduced use of pesticides, and increased quality and quantity of yields, as well as increased farm profitability through reduced costs and new product opportunities • For People- New cures for diseases, ends dental cavities, can end genetically passed on disease, better technology in all fields
Bibliography • • • www. drugresearcher. com/news/ http: //www. purefood. org/ge/klebsiella. cfm www. scienceagogo. com www. learner. org/channel/courses/biology/textbook/gmo www. technologyreview. com/Biztech/19128/ technology. newscientist. com/article/dn 10116 -gm-bacteria