Genetic Disorders Inheritance of Genetic Traits Brief History

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Genetic Disorders Inheritance of Genetic Traits

Genetic Disorders Inheritance of Genetic Traits

Brief History § First there was Gregor Mendel, a monk who studied inherited characteristics.

Brief History § First there was Gregor Mendel, a monk who studied inherited characteristics. This was followed by Francis crick and James Watson who unraveled the DNA molecule. This has led us to understanding the human genome sequence

Gregor Mendel § 1866 § Gregor Mendel published the results of his investigations of

Gregor Mendel § 1866 § Gregor Mendel published the results of his investigations of the inheritance of "factors" in pea plants.

Rosalind Franklin § 1950's. § Maurice Wilkins (1916 - ), Rosalind Franklin (19201957), Francis

Rosalind Franklin § 1950's. § Maurice Wilkins (1916 - ), Rosalind Franklin (19201957), Francis H. C. Crick (1916 - ) of Britain and James D. Watson (1928 - ) of the U. S. Discover chemical structure of DNA, starting a new branch of science--molecular biology. .

Watson and Crick § Watson and Crick made a model of the DNA molecule

Watson and Crick § Watson and Crick made a model of the DNA molecule and proved that genes determine heredity

Arthur Kornberg § 1957 § Arthur Kornberg (1918 - ) of the U. S.

Arthur Kornberg § 1957 § Arthur Kornberg (1918 - ) of the U. S. produced DNA in a test tube.

Genetic code § 1966 § The Genetic code was discovered; scientists are now able

Genetic code § 1966 § The Genetic code was discovered; scientists are now able to predict characteristics by studying DNA. This leads to genetic engineering, genetic counseling.

Barbara Mc. Clintock § 1983 § Barbara Mc. Clintock (1902 -1992) of the U.

Barbara Mc. Clintock § 1983 § Barbara Mc. Clintock (1902 -1992) of the U. S. was awarded the Nobel Prize for her discovery that genes are able to change position on chromosomes.

DNA Fingerprinting § The late 1980's. § An international team of scientists began the

DNA Fingerprinting § The late 1980's. § An international team of scientists began the project to map the human genome. § The first crime conviction based on DNA fingerprinting, in Portland Oregon.

Gene Therapy § 1990. § Gene therapy was used on patients for the first

Gene Therapy § 1990. § Gene therapy was used on patients for the first time.

Dr. Kary Mullis § 1993 § Dr. Kary Mullis discovered the PCR procedure, for

Dr. Kary Mullis § 1993 § Dr. Kary Mullis discovered the PCR procedure, for which he was awarded the Nobel prize.

DNA Testing § 1995. § DNA testing in forensics cases gains fame in the

DNA Testing § 1995. § DNA testing in forensics cases gains fame in the O. J. Simpson trial.

Cloning Begins § 1997. § Dolly the sheep - the first adult animal clone.

Cloning Begins § 1997. § Dolly the sheep - the first adult animal clone.

Human Genome Project § Imagine a world in which we will be able to

Human Genome Project § Imagine a world in which we will be able to treat diseases by altering our very genes‚ giving us new ones if ours are nonfunctional, changing bad genes for good ones. For the first time in our existence, we are closer to understanding just what we are. We now have the tools to make the whole world better through science ‚ the science of the human genome.

Genetic Disorders

Genetic Disorders

Mutations § Gene mutations can be either inherited from a parent or acquired. A

Mutations § Gene mutations can be either inherited from a parent or acquired. A hereditary mutation is a mistake that is present in the DNA of virtually all body cells. Hereditary mutations are also called germ line mutations because the gene change exists in the reproductive cells and can be passed from generation to generation, from parent to newborn. Moreover, the mutation is copied every time body cells divide

§ Mutations occur all the time in every cell in the body. Each cell,

§ Mutations occur all the time in every cell in the body. Each cell, however, has the remarkable ability to recognize mistakes and fix them before it passes them along to its descendants. But a cell's DNA repair mechanisms can fail, or be overwhelmed, or become less efficient with age. Over time, mistakes can accumulate.

NONDISJUNCTION § is the failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis I

NONDISJUNCTION § is the failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis I or II, specifically in the anaphase.

Down’s Syndrome § Caused by nondisjunction of the 21 st chromosome. § This means

Down’s Syndrome § Caused by nondisjunction of the 21 st chromosome. § This means that the individual has a trisomy (3 – 2 lst chromosomes). § Life expectancy is 55 years old.

Down’s Syndrome or Trisomy 21

Down’s Syndrome or Trisomy 21

Symptoms of Down Syndrome § § § Upward slant to eyes. Small ears that

Symptoms of Down Syndrome § § § Upward slant to eyes. Small ears that fold over at the top. Small, flattened nose. Small mouth, making tongue appear large. Short neck. Small hands with short fingers.

Symptoms of Down Syndrome § § § Low muscle tone. Single deep crease across

Symptoms of Down Syndrome § § § Low muscle tone. Single deep crease across center of palm. Looseness of joints. Small skin folds at the inner corners of the eyes. Excessive space between first and second toe. In addition, down syndrome always involves some degree of mental retardation, from mild to severe. In most cases, the mental retardation is mild to moderate.

Kleinfelter’s syndrome (or Klinefleter’s) § Disorder occurring due to nondisjunction of the X chromosome.

Kleinfelter’s syndrome (or Klinefleter’s) § Disorder occurring due to nondisjunction of the X chromosome. § The Sperm containing both X and Y combines with an egg containing the X, results in a male child. § The egg may contribute the extra X chromosome.

XXY § Males with some development of breast tissue normally seen in females. §

XXY § Males with some development of breast tissue normally seen in females. § Little body hair is present, and such person are typically tall, have small testes. § Infertility results from absent sperm. § Evidence of mental retardation may or may not be present. § Life expectancy is average.

§ Klinefleter’s

§ Klinefleter’s

Turner’s § Turner syndrome is associated with underdeveloped ovaries, short stature, webbed, and is

Turner’s § Turner syndrome is associated with underdeveloped ovaries, short stature, webbed, and is only in women. § Bull neck, and broad chest. Individuals are sterile, and lack expected secondary sexual characteristics. § Mental retardation typically not evident. § Life expectancy is average.

Turner’s Syndrome

Turner’s Syndrome

Sickle Cell Anemia § Caused by a point mutation § An inherited, chronic disease

Sickle Cell Anemia § Caused by a point mutation § An inherited, chronic disease in which the red blood cells, normally disc-shaped, become crescent shaped. As a result, they function abnormally and cause small blood clots. These clots give rise to recurrent painful episodes called "sickle cell pain crises".

Sickle Cell § Sickle cell disease is most commonly found in African American populations.

Sickle Cell § Sickle cell disease is most commonly found in African American populations. This disease was discovered over 80 years ago, but has not been given the attention it deserves. § There are 2 types of Sickle cell anemia § The life expectancy for one is 42 -48 years old and for the other is 60 -66 years old.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) § Cause: deletion of only 3 bases on chromosome 7 §

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) § Cause: deletion of only 3 bases on chromosome 7 § Fluid in lungs, potential respiratory failure § Common among Caucasians… 1 in 20 are carriers § Life expectancy is in the Mid 30’s.

Tay-Sachs disease § Monogenic, autosomal recessive § Central nervous system degrades, ultimately causing death.

Tay-Sachs disease § Monogenic, autosomal recessive § Central nervous system degrades, ultimately causing death. § Most common among people of Jewish, eastern Europe descent. § Life expectancy is 4 -6 years old.

Hemophilia, the royal disease § Hemophilia is the oldest § The severity of hemophilia

Hemophilia, the royal disease § Hemophilia is the oldest § The severity of hemophilia known hereditary bleeding is related to the amount of disorder. the clotting factor in the blood. About 70% of § Caused by a recessive hemophilia patients have gene on the X less than one percent of chromosome. the normal amount and, § There about 20, 000 thus, have severe hemophilia patients in the hemophilia. United States. § One can bleed to death with small cuts.

X-linked Inheritance pedigree chart

X-linked Inheritance pedigree chart

§ Huntington’s Disease § § § Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, degenerative brain

§ Huntington’s Disease § § § Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, degenerative brain disorder which results in an eventual loss of both mental and physical control. This disease is caused by duplication of the sequence CAG on chromosome 4. It is dominant The disease is also known as Huntington's chorea. Chorea means "dance-like movements" and refers to the uncontrolled motions often associated with the disease. The average life expectancy of the patient once the disease has been diagnosed is about 12 years.

Huntington’s § Scientists have discovered that the abnormal protein produced by the Huntington's disease

Huntington’s § Scientists have discovered that the abnormal protein produced by the Huntington's disease gene, which contains an elongated stretch of amino acids called glutamines, binds more tightly to HAP-1 than the normal protein does.

Phenylketonuria or PKU Caused by a mutation on chromosome 12 that leads to a

Phenylketonuria or PKU Caused by a mutation on chromosome 12 that leads to a deficiency of an enzyme which is necessary for proper metabolism of an amino acid called phenylalanine. People with PKU cannot consume any product that contains aspartame. PKU is a metabolic disorder that results when the PKU gene is inherited from both parents (recessive)

PKU § Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid and is found in nearly all

PKU § Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid and is found in nearly all foods which contain protein, dairy products, nuts, beans, tofu… etc. § A low protein diet must be followed. § Brain damage can result if the diet is not followed causing mental retardation…and mousy body odor (phenylacetic acid is in sweat). § Life expectancy is normal with proper diet.

Symptoms § § § A musty odor to the skin, hair, and urine. Skin

Symptoms § § § A musty odor to the skin, hair, and urine. Skin problems. Losing weight from vomiting and diarrhea. Acting fussy. Being sensitive to light.

PKU

PKU

Phenylalanine. Free diet §

Phenylalanine. Free diet §

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig’s disease)

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig’s disease)

§ the disease strikes people between the ages of 40 and 70, and as

§ the disease strikes people between the ages of 40 and 70, and as many as 30, 000 Americans have the disease at any given time § Caused by a point mutation that makes a defective protein that is toxic to motor nerve cells. § A common first symptom is a painless weakness in a hand, foot, arm or leg, other early symptoms include speech swallowing or walking difficulty § The average life expectancy of a patient with ALS is between two and five years from when they are diagnosed.

Muscular Dystrophy § What Is Muscular Dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy is a disease in which

Muscular Dystrophy § What Is Muscular Dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy is a disease in which the muscles of the body get weaker and slowly stop working because of a lack of a certain protein § Caused by mutation on the X chromosome. § Life expectancy is 18 to early 20’s.

Muscular Dystrophy § Frequent falls § Difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting

Muscular Dystrophy § Frequent falls § Difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position § Trouble running and jumping § Waddling gait § Large calf muscles § Learning disabilities

Diabetes § Disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin.

Diabetes § Disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. l Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy needed for daily life. § Genetic mutation can lead to Type 1 diabetes, § Life Expectancy is reduced about 10 - 20 years.

Diabetes § Type 1 reveals itself in childhood, Type 2 can be made worse

Diabetes § Type 1 reveals itself in childhood, Type 2 can be made worse from excessive lifestyle § Warning signs l l l Extreme thirst Blurry vision from time to time Frequent urination Unusual fatigue or drowsiness Unexplained weight loss Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, blindness, and amputation in adults, and can also lead to heart disease.

 Color Blindness § Cause: x-linked recessive § 1/10 males have, 1/100 females have.

Color Blindness § Cause: x-linked recessive § 1/10 males have, 1/100 females have. Why the difference? § Individuals are unable to distinguish shades of red-green. § Are you color blind? § Normal life expectancy

Albinism § Cause of albinism is a mutation in one of several genes (causes

Albinism § Cause of albinism is a mutation in one of several genes (causes the person to NOT produce melanin) § Patients are unable to produce skin or eye pigments, and thus are light-sensitive § Autosomal recessive § Normal life expectancy

Achondroplasia (a. k. a. dwarfism) § Point Mutation, autosomal l Carriers express genes, therefore,

Achondroplasia (a. k. a. dwarfism) § Point Mutation, autosomal l Carriers express genes, therefore, is it dominant or recessive? Normal life expectancy There is also a disease called gigantism (Andre the Giant)

The very tragic disease… hairy ears Caused by mutation on Y chromosome, which are

The very tragic disease… hairy ears Caused by mutation on Y chromosome, which are rare § symptoms…hairy ears § Only 1 cure known….

Edward’s Syndrome § is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or

Edward’s Syndrome § is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 18 th chromosome. (nondisjunction) § Life Expectancy: About half of infants with Edwards' syndrome die within the first two months of life, and between 90 -95 % don't live to see their first birthday.

Edward’s § Child will have a small head with characteristic facial features including a

Edward’s § Child will have a small head with characteristic facial features including a small jaw and mouth, upturned nose, widely spaced small eyes with narrow eyelid folds and drooping of the upper eyelids, and low-set, malformed ears. § The hands may be clenched, with the second and fifth fingers overlapping the other fingers, and the thumbs may be underdeveloped or absent. Webbing of the second and third toes may also occur.

Patau’s Syndrome § Patau's syndrome is a genetic or chromosomal disorder in which an

Patau’s Syndrome § Patau's syndrome is a genetic or chromosomal disorder in which an individual has 3 chromosomes in the 13 th set of autosomes (nondisjunction) § The expected life for the child with Patau syndrome is 2. 5 days.

Patau’s § An individual with patau's syndrome can be male or female. Being that

Patau’s § An individual with patau's syndrome can be male or female. Being that an individual has an extra chromosomes in one of its set, this is an abnormality and leads to developmental issues such as microcephaly, usually blindness, heart defects, cleft lip and palate. § Another significant effect of Patau syndrome is facial deformities such as absence of nose.

XYY Syndrome § XYY syndrome is a chromosome disorder that affects males. § It

XYY Syndrome § XYY syndrome is a chromosome disorder that affects males. § It is caused by nondisjunction of the X sex chromosome. Males with this disorder have an extra Y chromosome.

XYY § Males experience rapid growth in childhood § Males with XYY syndrome are

XYY § Males experience rapid growth in childhood § Males with XYY syndrome are not overly muscular, particularly in the chest and shoulders § Males with XYY syndrome may develop severe acne § Men with XYY syndrome have normal, heterosexual function and most are fertile. § Men with XYY syndrome usually have normal intelligence

XYY § Males with XYY syndrome have an increased risk of behavior problems §

XYY § Males with XYY syndrome have an increased risk of behavior problems § The XYY syndrome was previously considered the super-male syndrome, in which men with this condition were thought to be overly aggressive and more likely to become criminals. § Life expectancy is normal

Fragile X Syndrome § It is caused by an error in a small part

Fragile X Syndrome § It is caused by an error in a small part of DNA, the gene FMR 1. This gene is located on the X chromosome § Occurs in males and females § Life expectancy is normal

Fragile X Syndrome § Physical features may include large ears, long face, soft skin

Fragile X Syndrome § Physical features may include large ears, long face, soft skin and large testicles in post-pubertal males. Connective tissue problems may include ear infections, flat feet, high arched palate, double-jointed fingers and hyper-flexible joints. § Behavioral characteristics can include ADD, ADHD, autism and autistic behaviors, social anxiety, hand-biting and/or flapping, poor eye contact, sensory disorders and increased risk for aggression.

Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome § § Is a rare genetic disorder Is caused by a deletion

Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome § § Is a rare genetic disorder Is caused by a deletion on chromosome 5. Is French for “cat’s cry” Life expectancy is 58 years old. Oldest person reported to have lived with it was 60 years old.

Cri- Du- Chat § § § Cry that is high-pitched and sounds like a

Cri- Du- Chat § § § Cry that is high-pitched and sounds like a cat Downward slant to the eyes Low birth weight and slow growth Low-set or abnormally shaped ears Intellectual disability Partial webbing or fusing of fingers or toes Single line in the palm of the hand Skin tags just in front of the ear Slow or incomplete development of motor skills Small head Small jaw Wide-set eyes