General education in Estonia Anita Krner University of

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General education in Estonia 爱沙尼亚的通识教育 Anita Kärner, University of Tartu 阿妮塔 卡娜 塔尔图大学 Guilin,

General education in Estonia 爱沙尼亚的通识教育 Anita Kärner, University of Tartu 阿妮塔 卡娜 塔尔图大学 Guilin, 29 th March 2012 桂林 2012 3月29日

Estonia; population of 1. 3 million 爱沙尼亚 130万人口

Estonia; population of 1. 3 million 爱沙尼亚 130万人口

Estonian general education in numbers 爱沙尼亚通识教育概况 110 930 pupils in compulsory education (9 years)/九年义务教育有110

Estonian general education in numbers 爱沙尼亚通识教育概况 110 930 pupils in compulsory education (9 years)/九年义务教育有110 930名学生 25 174 students in upper secondary education (3 years)/高中教育有25 174名学生 14 394 teachers/14 394位教师

Estonian general education in numbers 爱沙尼亚通识教育概况 540 schools, incl. elementary basic (9 years) full

Estonian general education in numbers 爱沙尼亚通识教育概况 540 schools, incl. elementary basic (9 years) full cycle (12 years) 包括九年义务教育阶段学校和含高中 部的学校在内,共计 540所学校

Curriculum reforms since 1990 s 20世纪 90年代以来的课程改革 1992: modification of subjects syllabi 修改学科课程大纲 1996:

Curriculum reforms since 1990 s 20世纪 90年代以来的课程改革 1992: modification of subjects syllabi 修改学科课程大纲 1996: new concept/新概念 2002: general competencies, compulsory and elective subjects 通用的能力,必修和 选修的学科 2011 …

2011: issues related to the study environment 2011:与学习环境相关的问题 • Orientation towards learning rather than

2011: issues related to the study environment 2011:与学习环境相关的问题 • Orientation towards learning rather than teaching 关注学多于教 • Developing a helpful and trusting environment by schools and using teaching methods appropriate for the pupils’ individual traits 通过学校发展一个有益的和信任的环境并运用 与学生个人特质相适应的教学方法

2011: the issue of graduation 2011:毕业问题 3 state examinations covering Estonian, one foreign language

2011: the issue of graduation 2011:毕业问题 3 state examinations covering Estonian, one foreign language and mathematics will be compulsory for pupils graduating from upper secondary schools 从高中毕业的学生必须通过爱沙尼亚语、外语 和数学这三门全国考试

2011: the role of grades 2011:分数的作用 Avoiding „learning for tests“. /避免为了考试而学习 Objectives that are

2011: the role of grades 2011:分数的作用 Avoiding „learning for tests“. /避免为了考试而学习 Objectives that are intended to support the pupils, including the provision of feedback, motivation and guidance to pupils are underlined 通过反馈信息、激励和突出引导学生来达成目标

2011: volume of study 学习的容量 • The volume of study common to all pupils

2011: volume of study 学习的容量 • The volume of study common to all pupils was reduced 面向全体学生的学习容量在减少 • The freedom of choice in upper secondary school increased 高中的自由选择增加

2011: better links between closely related subjects 2011:更好地连接紧密相关的学科 • Subject domains have been categorized

2011: better links between closely related subjects 2011:更好地连接紧密相关的学科 • Subject domains have been categorized 对学科领域进行分类 • Connection between subjects, their central themes and general parts 对接不同学科的核心的主题和共通的部 分

Thank you! 谢谢!

Thank you! 谢谢!