- Slides: 24
Gender and Violence Tahsina Akhter Assistant Professor Department of Sociology University of Dhaka
Violence • Violence and other forms of abuse are most commonly understood as a pattern of behaviour intended to establish and maintain control over family, household members, intimate partners, colleagues, individuals or groups. While violent offenders are most often known to their victims (intimate or estranged partners and spouses, family members, relatives, peers, colleagues, etc. ), acts of violence and abuse may also be committed by strangers.
Cont. • Violence and abuse may occur only once, can involve various tactics of subtle manipulation or may occur frequently while escalating over a period of months or years. In any form, violence and abuse profoundly affect individual health and well-being. The roots of all forms of violence are founded in the many types of inequality which continue to exist and grow in society. • Violence and abuse are used to establish and maintain power and control over another person, and often reflect an imbalance of power between the victim and the abuser. • Violence is a choice, and it is preventable.
Definition and typology of violence Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA) • VPA addresses the problem of violence as defined in the World report on violence and health (WRVH), namely: • "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. "
Gender-based violence • Gender-based violence is violence against women based on women’s subordinate status in • society. It includes any act or threat by men or male dominated institutions that inflict physical, sexual, or psychological harm on a woman or girl because of their gender. In most cultures, traditional beliefs, norms and social institutions legitimize and therefore perpetuate violence against women
Cont. • Gender-based violence includes physical, sexual and psychological violence such as domestic violence; sexual abuse, including rape and sexual abuse of children by family members; forced pregnancy; sexual slavery; traditional practices harmful to women, such as honor killings, burning or acid throwing, female genital mutilation, dowry-related violence; violence in armed conflict, such as murder and rape; and emotional abuse, such as coercion and abusive language. • Trafficking of women and girls for prostitution, forced marriage, sexual harassment and intimidation at work are additional examples of violence against women.
Cont. • Gender violence occurs in both the ‘public’ and ‘private’ spheres. Such violence not only occurs in the family and in the general community, but is sometimes also perpetuated by the state through policies or the actions of agents of the state such as the police, military or immigration authorities. Gender-based violence happens in all societies, across all social classes, with women particularly at risk from men they know.
Cycle of violence • First identified by psychologist Lenore Walker, in the late 1970‘s, the “cycle of violence” refers to a continuing cyclical pattern of abuse. It begins with the extreme build up of tension in the home which the victim can clearly feel. It is followed by a violent and abusive release and is completed with extreme contriteness along with apparent remorse on the part of the batterer. Many batterers engage in this pattern repeatedly and it can take days, weeks, or months to complete each cycle.
Cycle of violence
Cont. • During the first phase or “tension building phase, ” the batterer uses hurtful words or actions to emotionally wound and frighten his partner. This establishes within him a false sense of power and control over his partner. He is creating an environment of tension and unpredictability.
Cont. • At some point, the tension feels unbearable and the batterer will lash out in a violent and abusive manner. Hitting, slapping, punching, grabbing and hurting his partner as well throwing and breaking things. This behavior continues until the batterer is exhausted.
Cont. • Following the abusive phase, the batterer appears remorseful. This is referred to as the “honeymoon phase. ” The victim is bombarded by profuse apologies, flowers and gifts, and promises “It will never happen again. ” Unfortunately, this phase is frequently shortlived (it could last as little as a few hours) and the tension building phase begins again.
Types • • • There are nine distinct forms of violence and abuse: Physical violence; Sexual violence; Emotional violence; Psychological violence; Spiritual violence; Cultural violence; Verbal Abuse; Financial Abuse; and, Neglect • http: //www. gov. nl. ca/VPI/types/
Nine Types of Violence and Abuse Physical Violence Physical violence occurs when someone uses a part of their body or an object to control a person’s actions. Sexual Violence Sexual violence occurs when a person is forced to unwillingly take part in sexual activity. Emotional Violence Emotional violence occurs when someone says or does something to make a person feel stupid or worthless. Psychological Violence Psychological violence occurs when someone uses threats and causes fear in an individual to gain control. Spiritual Violence Spiritual (or religious) violence occurs when someone uses an individual’s spiritual beliefs to manipulate, dominate or control that person. Cultural Violence Cultural violence occurs when an individual is harmed as a result of practices that are part of her or his culture, religion or tradition. Verbal Abuse Verbal abuse occurs when someone uses language, whether spoken or written, to Financial Abuse Financial abuse occurs when someone controls an individual’s financial resources Neglect occurs when someone has the responsibility to provide care or assistance for
Typology of interpersonal violence • Self-directed violence refers to violence in which the perpetrator and the victim are the same individual and is subdivided into self-abuse and suicide. • Interpersonal violence refers to violence between individuals, and is subdivided into family and intimate partner violence and community violence. The former category includes child maltreatment; intimate partner violence; and elder abuse, while the latter is broken down into acquaintance and strangerviolence and includes youth violence; assault by strangers; violence related to property crimes; and violence in workplaces and other institutions. • Collective violence refers to violence committed by larger groups of individuals and can be subdivided into social, political and economic violence.
Typology of interpersonal violence http: //www. who. int/violenceprevention/approach/definition/en/
Types of violence Level Physical Cultural Structural Family Beating, child/force labor, calling names, intimidation, imprisonment, depriving from food Deprivation of girls from education, not allowing children to express their ideas, unhealthy cultural values and tradition, superstition Spirit of indifference, malnutrition, poverty at family level, not to express opinion. School Beating, power abuse Message of hatred, using students as object No school facility for all National Sexual, killing, kidnapping, torture, isolation, beating Lack of free media access, discrimination in recruiting govt. Employment, poverty cycle, criminal economy, low role for women in govt. & state position Weak civil society, unjust distribution of resources, deprivation of people from civil, economic and political rights. Community Kidnapping, killing, Forced marriage, Poverty, no domestic
Causes • systematic male dominance in the name of culture giving important role to men, preference to son, superstitious beliefs, denied access to opportunity despite their capability hindering development, low female literacy rate, thought as an economic threat to educate them, teaching women their duties to be submissive and obedient despite their unwillingness but not aware them about their rights and thinking violence as fate than a crime. Besides all the social factors, there is some legal constraint which has encouraged men to perpetrate violence against women because of which women act as subordinate and accept violence as their fate. For e. g. lack of property in their name, lack of access to employment or education attainment opportunity without the name of father has given men the superior role and women the inferior role. As a result women have to suppress any kind of violence.
ecological model of factors associated with genderbased violence Society Community Relationship Individual perpetrator
Causes Society Community Relationship Individual perpetrator Norms granting men control over female behavior Poverty, low socioeconomic status, unemployment Marital conflict Witnessing marital violence as a child Acceptance of Associating with Male control of Absent or rejecting violence as a way to peers who condone wealth and decision father resolve conflict violence -making in the family Notion of masculinity linked to dominance, honor and aggression Isolation of women and family Being abused as a child
Consequences • • • Divorce Mental illness Physical Illness Unsuitable Family Environment Abandoned Social Status Emotional Distance Denied Legal Aids Child sufferings
Consequences Physical Sexual and reproductive acute or immediate physical injuries, such as bruises, abrasions, lacerations, punctures, burns and bites, as well as fractures and broken bones or teeth • more serious injuries, which can lead to disabilities, including injuries to the head, eyes, ears, chest and abdomen • gastrointestinal conditions, long-term health problems and poor health status, including chronic pain syndromes • death, including femicide and AIDSrelated death • unintended/unwanted pregnancy • abortion/unsafe abortion • sexually transmitted infections, including HIV • pregnancy complications/miscarriage • vaginal bleeding or infections • chronic pelvic infection • urinary tract infections • fistula (a tear between the vagina and bladder, rectum, or both) • painful sexual intercourse • sexual dysfunction Mental Behavioural Depression • sleeping and eating disorders • stress and anxiety disorders (e. g. posttraumatic stress disorder) • harmful alcohol and substance use • multiple sexual partners • choosing abusive partners later in life • lower rates of contraceptive and
Attempts to reduce Violence • Medical, Social, Psychological and legal counseling through government agencies, NGO (providing both psycho-social and legal counseling and leisure activities) • Social agencies like family, friends, relatives, neighbors, religion, counselors have greater role to combat violence in the society as a whole.