Gateway Drugs Cigarettes Marijuana and Alcohol are described

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Gateway Drugs ® Cigarettes, Marijuana and Alcohol are described as the gateway drugs. ®

Gateway Drugs ® Cigarettes, Marijuana and Alcohol are described as the gateway drugs. ® Nicotine in tobacco smoke is very addictive, even more addictive than cocaine and heroin. ® Nicotine changes the chemistry of the brain so that a smoker craves cigarettes. ® If a person took the amount of nicotine in ten packs of cigarettes, he or she would die.

Trachea, Bronchioles and Alveoli

Trachea, Bronchioles and Alveoli

Bronchioles The bronchioles are the intermediate air passages within the lungs. They branch off

Bronchioles The bronchioles are the intermediate air passages within the lungs. They branch off of the large bronchi and extend to the smaller branches of the alveolar ducts. Each respiratory bronchiole subdivides into five or more alveolar ducts. The structure of the bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli is often called the "pulmonary tree" because its extensive branching resembles

Alveoli The alveoli are the tiny sacs at the ends (or "leaves") on the

Alveoli The alveoli are the tiny sacs at the ends (or "leaves") on the bronchial tree. Each small bronchiole divides into half a dozen or so alveolar ducts, which are the narrow inlets into alveolar sacs. Each alveolar duct subdivides, leading into three or more alveolar sacs. Each large alveolar sac is like a grape cluster which contains ten or more alveoli. Because the membrane separating the alveolus and the capillary network which carries blood over them is very thin and semipermeable, oxygen can transfer from the air into the blood cells within the capillaries. Likewise, carbon dioxide and other waste gases can transfer out of the blood and into the air to be exhaled from the lungs. The alveoli are particularly susceptible to infection, as they provide bacteria and viruses a perfect place to grow. This accounts for the tendency for a chest cold or other lung problem to advance into pneumonia and pneumonitis, both potentially dangerous conditions in which the innermost parts of the lungs become infected and inflamed,

Alveoli Sac

Alveoli Sac

Cilia inside nasal cavity ® Cilia line the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity

Cilia inside nasal cavity ® Cilia line the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity

Dangerous poisons in cigarettes. ® When a person inhales cigarette smoke, thousands of tiny

Dangerous poisons in cigarettes. ® When a person inhales cigarette smoke, thousands of tiny particles enter the lungs. When the tar cools, it forms a sticky substance that coats the lining of the lungs. ® It also paralyzes millions of tiny hairs in the nose, throat and bronchus that would otherwise sweep germs out of the lungs. ® The tar in cigarette smoke can trigger cancer growth. ® The lungs expand contract for normal breathing, but the tar causes a gooey molasses and this prevents normal breathing.

Diseases ® Tar in cigarette smoke can cause another disease – chronic bronchitis. In

Diseases ® Tar in cigarette smoke can cause another disease – chronic bronchitis. In this condition the airways to the lungs get smaller, and they become clogged with mucus. ® Cigarette smoke also contains carbon monoxide – (car exhaust). Carbon Monoxide ends up in the brain, heart, and blood vessels. This gas takes the place of oxygen; the subject’s heart will have to pump harder to deliver the oxygen around the body. This extra work can put a strain on the heart. ® The gas also builds up a fatty substance called cholesterol on blood vessel walls.

What is contained in cigarettes? ® Rat poison. ® Aviation fuel ® Insecticides hydrogen

What is contained in cigarettes? ® Rat poison. ® Aviation fuel ® Insecticides hydrogen cyanide. ® Cleaning agents. ® Weed killer. ® Exhaust fumes.

Other Products ® Nitrogen oxides: a major component of smog. ® Ammonia; a major

Other Products ® Nitrogen oxides: a major component of smog. ® Ammonia; a major component of fertilizers. ® Sulphur dioxide: kill cilia. ® Toluene can damage brain cells. ® Nitrosamines: destroy D. N. A.

Harmful Products: cancer causing ® Tar, nickel, lead and cobalt. ® Benzene: an industrial

Harmful Products: cancer causing ® Tar, nickel, lead and cobalt. ® Benzene: an industrial solvent refined from crude oil. ® Cadmium used in batteries. ® Polonium 2010: a radioactive element. ® Chromium: used to manufacture dye and paints. ® Acrolein used as chemical weapons.

Stop to think (inside) ® Ant poison – arsenic ® Floor cleaner – ammonia

Stop to think (inside) ® Ant poison – arsenic ® Floor cleaner – ammonia ® Polish remover – acetone ® Explosives – toluene ® Tanning lotion – methylamine ® Insecticide – DDT ® Weed killer – nicotine ® Power in satellites – polonium ® Aviation fuel - methanol

Other Facts ® 6, 000 die each year in Ireland due to smoking. ®

Other Facts ® 6, 000 die each year in Ireland due to smoking. ® 95% of lung cancers are caused by smoking. ® In Ireland one third of 15 – 17 year olds smoke. ® 20 a day smoker, spends over 180 a month and over 2000 euros per year. ® It contains 4000 chemicals. ® It stains your teeth, the smell lingers on your clothes. ® Tobacco companies need to recruit 25 new customers per day because this is the amount who die from smoking in Ireland each day.

Irish and European Statistics ® In 2009 31% of the Irish population smoked. 29%

Irish and European Statistics ® In 2009 31% of the Irish population smoked. 29% is the average for a E. U. country. ® 40% in Greece, but only 16% of the Finnish population smoke. ® According to the HSE, 15% of irish –age school children smoke. ® IN 2008, there were 36, 000 tobacco related admissions to hospital in Ireland which cost 280 million.

Marijuana ® It has more tar than cigarettes. ® Contains a poisonous chemical delta

Marijuana ® It has more tar than cigarettes. ® Contains a poisonous chemical delta nine tetrahydrocannabinol. (THC). ® THC is stored in various organs – lungs and kidneys. This chemical destroys white blood cells. It can cause panic attacks. Users find it difficult to focus their thoughts. ® Can also distort a person’s sense of time and space. (Auto accidents)

Alcohol ® Alcohol is a poisonous substance. If the liver becomes overloaded and can

Alcohol ® Alcohol is a poisonous substance. If the liver becomes overloaded and can not deamify the alcohol fast enough this results in alcohol poisoning. ® Heart – high blood pressure and therefore the heart has to work harder to pump blood around the body. ® If your liver becomes damaged then harmful products will remain in the body. The person gets hepatitis and the liver gets sore. Cirrhosis – portions of the liver die and become scarred.

Statistics ® As a nation we consume the most alcohol in Europe, we have

Statistics ® As a nation we consume the most alcohol in Europe, we have overtaken Luxembourg per head of population. ® 30% of male admissions to hospitals in this country have an alcohol related problem. ® Orthopoedic – fractures. Gastro intestinal wards – peptic ulcers. Neurological wards – dementia. Liver units – hepatitic convulsions. Respiratory Wards – pneumonia, T. B. tongue and throat cancer. Cardiac Unit – high blood pressure. Maternity Wards – birth to babies with foetal alcohol syndrome. Accident and emergency crashes. Morgue – suicides.

Cannabis ® Made from parts of the cannabis plant. ® Impure – soap bar.

Cannabis ® Made from parts of the cannabis plant. ® Impure – soap bar. ® Sedative effects and others feel chilled out. ® Hunger pangs. Co-ordination. Panic. ® Chemical nasties: lung disease, cancer. ® Increases blood pressure and causes schizophrenia and poor concentration