- Slides: 21
EXPRESSING FUTURE � English doesn’t have future tenses in a way that it has present or past tenses � it uses different forms to express future � the choice of the future form depends on the speaker’s view of the situation, not on the time the action takes place � the important thing is whether the action is planned or not, what we base our predictions on etc.
BE GOING TO � Form: present of be (am/are/is) + going to + infinitive e. g. She is going to leave. They are going to move house. She isn’t going to have a baby. Is it going to snow?
BE GOING TO � Use: � to talk about things we have decided to do in the future i. e. something already planned � to predict the future, using the information available to us now i. e to use present evidence to tell the future
BE GOING TO � A: What are you going to do tomorrow? B: I’m going to visit Paul in Brighton. A: Are you going to drive? B: No, I’m going to take the train. � Look at that blue sky! It’s going to be hot. � I’ve eaten too much. I’m going to be ill! � It’s 11 pm. They aren’t going to call now.
WILL � Form: Positive: will + infinitive Negative: will not (won’t) + infinitive Interrogative: will + subject + infinitive e. g. She will be 25 next month. They will buy a new car. He won’t come on time. Will you come to my party?
WILL � Use: � to talk about future facts � to talk about things we think will happen in the future � for decisions made at the moment of speaking (instant decisions)
WILL � These shoes won’t fit her – it’s not her size. � My parents will celebrate their 50 th anniversary soon. � She will love your new dress. � He’s a good manager, he won’t make any mistakes. � (when the phone rings) I’ll answer it. � (someone’s at the door) Will you get it?
WILL or BE GOING TO? � we use will for actions that we decide to do now, at the moment of speaking past now decision � we use going to for actions that we decided to do before we speak past now decision
WILL or BE GOING TO? we use will to talk about things we think or believe will happen in the future e. g. I’m sure you’ll enjoy the film. I think they’ll win. They play really well. � we use going to for something we expect to happen, because the situation now indicates that it is going to happen e. g. It’s going to rain. Look at all those clouds. He’s running towards the goal, he’s going to score! �
PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR THE FUTURE we use the present continuous to talk about things we have arranged in the past to do in the future e. g. I’m flying home next week. He’s starting a new job on Monday. we don’t us it for the future events that we cannot arrange e. g. The sun is shining tomorrow. The Irish team are winning next week. �
PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR THE FUTURE � we use present continuous instead of be going to with the verbs expressing movement e. g. He’s going to go soon. He is going soon. They’re going to come at 10. They are coming at 10.
PRESENT SIMPLE FOR THE FUTURE � we use present simple for future events that happen according to a schedule or a timetable e. g. The bus leaves at 6 from platform two. Do you finish school early tomorrow? A: What time does your plane leave tomorrow? B: 9, 30. And it gets to Paris at 10, 25.
PRESENT SIMPLE FOR THE FUTURE � we use present simple in subordinate, time clauses to refer to the future � present simple comes after the linking words: after, as soon as, before, by the time, until, when, while e. g. When you see her, give her my message. They’ll start as soon as the rain stops. If you come in late, don’t make noise.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS � Form: will be + verb-ing e. g. I’ll be working all day tomorrow, but I won’t be working the day after. What will we be doing in ten year’s time, I wonder?
FUTURE CONTINUOUS � we use future continuous to talk about an action over a period of time � it means that in some time in the future we will be in the middle of an action e. g. Ben can’t go to the party, he will be looking after the kids tomorrow night. Don’t call at 2. I’ll be having lunch out of the office at that time.
WILL and FUTURE CONTINUOUS � Compare: The band will play when the President enters. = they will start playing after he enters The band will be playing when the President enters. = they will start playing before he enters
FUTURE CONTINUOUS � we also use future continuous for an action which will happen in the course of events because it is a part of a plan or of a schedule of future events e. g. The dinner will be served at 9, 00 and the party will be starting at 11, 00. Don’t stay in the town for too long because the ship will be sailing soon.
FUTURE PERFECT � Form: will have + past participle e. g. I will have finished work by 6, 30. They will have lived here for ten years next May. This game is going to last ages! They won’t have finished by midnight.
FUTURE PERFECT � we use future perfect for something that will be over at the certain point of time in the future e. g. A: What time will you come home? B: I’ll have finished here by 8, 30, so I should be home around 9. Will you have read this book by the time it’s due back to the library?
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