Fundamentals of Writing Chapter 11 2013 Delmar Cengage

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Fundamentals of Writing Chapter 11 © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Fundamentals of Writing Chapter 11 © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Sentences • Keep the subject and verb close together • Use short, concise, sentences

Sentences • Keep the subject and verb close together • Use short, concise, sentences • Use active voice • Use action verbs • Use transitions © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Paragraphs • Topic Sentence – Introduces the subject and provides the focus of the

Paragraphs • Topic Sentence – Introduces the subject and provides the focus of the paragraph • Body – Supports or develops the subject introduced by the topic sentence • Closing – Summarizes or applies the subject addressed in the paragraph to the facts of a case © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Paragraphs • Transition Sentence – Connects the subjects in different paragraphs • Length –

Paragraphs • Transition Sentence – Connects the subjects in different paragraphs • Length – Avoid extremely long, extremely short, or extremely lengthy paragraphs © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Word Selection and Usage • • Avoid excessive or redundant words Avoid noun/verb strings,

Word Selection and Usage • • Avoid excessive or redundant words Avoid noun/verb strings, as they are redundant Avoid nominalizations (nouns made from verbs) Avoid legalese and use plain English Do not use archaic words Use gender-neutral terms Know commonly misused words and use them correctly © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Grammar • The subject and verb must agree in person and number • Use

Grammar • The subject and verb must agree in person and number • Use a consistent verb tense • Use parallel construction so that items listed are similar in grammatical structure • Avoid superfluous verbs © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Grammar • Avoid problems involving modifiers – Misplaced Modifiers – Dangling Modifiers – Squinting

Grammar • Avoid problems involving modifiers – Misplaced Modifiers – Dangling Modifiers – Squinting Modifiers – Split Infinitives © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Grammar • Pronouns must agree in number (singular/plural) and gender (feminine/masculine/neutral) with the nouns

Grammar • Pronouns must agree in number (singular/plural) and gender (feminine/masculine/neutral) with the nouns to which they refer (their antecedents) © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Adverbs, Adjectives, and Conjunctions • Adjective – A word used to modify a noun

Adverbs, Adjectives, and Conjunctions • Adjective – A word used to modify a noun or pronoun • Adverb – A word used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb • Conjunction – A word that connects words, phrased, clauses or sentences © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Adverbs and Adjectives • Many but not all adverbs are formed by adding -ly

Adverbs and Adjectives • Many but not all adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective • Use an adjective if the word following a linking verb describes the subject of the sentence; use an adverb if the word refers to the verb © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Adverbs and Adjectives • Use a comparative adjective to compare two things; use a

Adverbs and Adjectives • Use a comparative adjective to compare two things; use a superlative adjective to compare three or more things • Place adverbs used for emphasis immediately before the word or phrase they modify © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Conjunctions • Use a coordinating conjunction (e. g. , and, or, but, for, so,

Conjunctions • Use a coordinating conjunction (e. g. , and, or, but, for, so, yet, nor) when joining clauses and words of equal rank • Use correlative conjunctions in pairs (e. g. , either/or, neither/nor, if/then, both/and, since/therefore) to link items of equal rank © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Basic Uses of Commas – Before a coordinating conjunction joining two main

Punctuation • Basic Uses of Commas – Before a coordinating conjunction joining two main or independent clauses – After an introductory phrase – After each item in a series of three or more items – To avoid a misreading of the subject © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Basic Uses of Commas (continued) – To separate coordinate adjectives – To

Punctuation • Basic Uses of Commas (continued) – To separate coordinate adjectives – To set off transitional or interpretive words or phrases – To set off nonrestrictive clauses, appositives, contrasting phrases, quotations, and descriptive titles © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Uses of Semicolons – To separate major elements of complex sentences –

Punctuation • Uses of Semicolons – To separate major elements of complex sentences – To separate items in a series if the items are long or if one of the items has internal commas © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Uses of Colons – To introduce a list or series preceded by

Punctuation • Uses of Colons – To introduce a list or series preceded by a complete sentence – To introduce or emphasize a quotation – To join two separate but related clauses and emphasize the latter © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Uses of Apostrophes – To make singular nouns possessive (followed by s)

Punctuation • Uses of Apostrophes – To make singular nouns possessive (followed by s) – To make plural nouns possessive (after the final s) – To make a compound word or word group possessive – To form contractions (not usually used in formal writing) © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Quotation Marks – Used to set off short quotes (less than 50

Punctuation • Quotation Marks – Used to set off short quotes (less than 50 words) – Not used with long, block quotes – Used to indicate that a word is used in a special way, is a special term, or is questionable • Ellipses – Indicate the omission of part of a quotation © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Brackets – Show changes in or add information a quotation – Indicate

Punctuation • Brackets – Show changes in or add information a quotation – Indicate an error in an original quotation • Parentheses – Enclose information that is outside the main idea of the sentence – Enclose references to other cases, attached material, or an appendix © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Punctuation • Hyphen – Forms compound modifiers and compound nouns • Em Dash –

Punctuation • Hyphen – Forms compound modifiers and compound nouns • Em Dash – Emphasizes something – Sets off a list or a brief summary containing commas – Shows an abrupt change of thought or direction © 2013 Delmar, Cengage Learning