- Slides: 13
Fundamental & Derived Positions
Fundamental & derived Positions • Fundamental & derived Positions are usually described as the starting positions from which exercises start.
Fundamental Positions 5 fundamental positions: Standing, Kneeling, Sitting, Lying and hanging. Selection of the suitable position is made according to the purpose for which they are required. • They may be to: 1. utilize support essential for relaxation. 2. Train balance. 3. Achieve adequate fixation when movement is to be localized to specific joint. 4. Modify the effect of an exercise to improve R. O. M. Or strength. 5. Maintain or improve posture.
Selection of The Starting Position The following should be considered: 1. The ability of the pt. to assume the position. 2. The need to stabilize one segment of the body to permit safe & efficient movement. . 3. The use of gravity for assistance or resistance. 4. The presence of pain or discomfort ( the position. should be pain free to assure relaxation of the pt. . 5. The use of a short lever arm versus a long lever arm.
Derived Positions • Position of the arms, legs or trunk may be altered in each of the fundamental positions to modify the effects of the position or that of the exercises. The purpose for modifications may be to: 1. Increase or decrease the size and stability of the base of support of the body. 2. raise or lower the center of gravity (COG) 3. Ensure maximum local or general relaxation. 4. Provide a control or fixation for a particular part of the body to localize movement to a particular part of the body to localize movements to a specific area. 5. Increase or decrease the muscle work required to maintain the position. 6. Avoid muscle shortening and contractures. 7. Avoid joint stiffness and intraarticular adhesions. 8. Avoid respiratory and circulatory complications as pressure ulcers and pneumonia, DVD. 9. Increase or decrease the leverage.
Lying ( supine or backlying ) • Characteristics : It is the easiest of the whole positions. The body is fully supported with a wide base of support & low centre of gravity ( C. O. G. ).
DERIVED POSITIONS FROM LYING 1. Prone lying ( face lying ). 2. Side lying. 3. Crook lying.
Sitting • Characteristics : It is a comfortable, natural & very stable position. The centre of gravity is low but near to the edge of the base of support which is the area between both the legs of the seat & the pt. feet.
Derived Positions from Sitting 1. 2. 3. 4. Long sitting. Half Sitting. Forward lean sittting. Side Sitting.
Kneeling • Characteristics : This position is unstable & difficult to maintain as the C. O. G. falls close to the edge of the base, which is the area of the legs only.
Derived Positions from Kneeling 1. Kneel sitting. 2. Prone kneeling ( cat pos. , quadruped pos. , four foot pos. )
Standing • Characteristics : The base of support is very small & the C. O. G. is high.
Derived Positions from Standing 1. Stride Standing. 2. Walk standing.