Functions of blood Production of RBC WBC Platelets

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 • • • Functions of blood Production of RBC, WBC, Platelets Characteristics of

• • • Functions of blood Production of RBC, WBC, Platelets Characteristics of blood cells Hemostasis Blood transfusion reactions Immunity

Blood – Physical Characteristics • Volume – Adult ♂ – Adult ♀ • Viscosity

Blood – Physical Characteristics • Volume – Adult ♂ – Adult ♀ • Viscosity • p. H • Color 5 -6 L 4 -5 L 5 times the viscosity of water 7. 35 – 7. 45 (slightly alkaline) – (oxygenated blood) – (deoxygenated blood) scarlet red deep red

Whole Blood Plasma Formed Elements (46 -63%) (37 -54%) 1. Water (92%) 1. Red

Whole Blood Plasma Formed Elements (46 -63%) (37 -54%) 1. Water (92%) 1. Red Blood Cells (99. 9%) 2. Plasma Proteins (7%) 2. Platelets 3. Other Solutes (1%) 3. White Blood Cells (0. 1%)

FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD 1. Nutrient function 2. Transportation of gases 3. Excretory function 4.

FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD 1. Nutrient function 2. Transportation of gases 3. Excretory function 4. Transportation of hormones and enzymes 5. Regulation of water balance 6. Regulation of acid base balance 7. Regulation of body temp. 8. Storage function

9. Defensive function

9. Defensive function

 • RBC have the ability to concentrate upto 34 gms in each 100

• RBC have the ability to concentrate upto 34 gms in each 100 ml of cells • 1 gm of Hb combines with 1. 34 ml of oxygen • Males 15 gms of Hb/100 ml of cells---20 ml of oxygen carried in 100 ml of cells • Females 14 gms of Hb/100 ml of cells---19 ml of oxygen carried in 100 ml of cells

Types of plasma proteins • Albumin 4. 5 – 5 g/dl • Globulin 2.

Types of plasma proteins • Albumin 4. 5 – 5 g/dl • Globulin 2. 0 – 3 g/dl – 1 globulin – 2 globulin – globulin • Fibrinogen 0. 2 – 0. 45 g/dl • Total amount = 6 -8 g/dl

Nutrition • Plasma proteins break down to supply Amino acids for different cells of

Nutrition • Plasma proteins break down to supply Amino acids for different cells of the body • Synthesized constantly by the liver • 10 -12 grams of albumin turn over occurs in 24 hours

Viscosity • Plasma proteins contribute towards the viscosity of the blood. . • Excessive

Viscosity • Plasma proteins contribute towards the viscosity of the blood. . • Excessive viscosity impedes the blood flow.

Osmotic pressure • 28 mm Hg osmotic pressure • Albumin contribute about 80 %

Osmotic pressure • 28 mm Hg osmotic pressure • Albumin contribute about 80 % of it – Most abundant – Smallest molecule • Hypoproteinemia results into generalized edema because of low osmotic pressure – Nephrotic syndrome

Carrier function • Albumin transports – Bilirubin – Hormones – Drugs • Thyroxin binding

Carrier function • Albumin transports – Bilirubin – Hormones – Drugs • Thyroxin binding globulin and pre albumin carry thyroid hormone • Transcortin carries cortisol. • Lipoproteins carry lipids. • Ceruloplasmin carry copper • Transferrin carry iron • Haptoglobin binds with free hemoglobin

Blood coagulation • Most of the clotting factors are part of plasma proteins –

Blood coagulation • Most of the clotting factors are part of plasma proteins – Fibrinogen – Prothrombin – Labile factor – Stable factor – Christmas factor – Stuart Prower factor – Hageman factor – FSF

Blood coagulation • Anticoagulants – Heparin – Antithrombin

Blood coagulation • Anticoagulants – Heparin – Antithrombin

Buffer action • The acceptance of H+ Ions is called buffer action. • 15

Buffer action • The acceptance of H+ Ions is called buffer action. • 15 % buffering capacity of the blood • At p. H 7. 4 (normal p. H) mostly negatively charged and can combine with cations.

Immunity • Antibodies are gamma globulins • Immunoglobulins – Ig G – Ig M

Immunity • Antibodies are gamma globulins • Immunoglobulins – Ig G – Ig M – Ig A – Ig D – Ig E

Precursors of active substances • Some very important protein present in inactive form as

Precursors of active substances • Some very important protein present in inactive form as part of plasma proteins • Activated for very important specific functions – Angiotensin – Erythropoietin

Enzymes • Many circulating enzymes are also part of plasma proteins – Alkaline phosphatase

Enzymes • Many circulating enzymes are also part of plasma proteins – Alkaline phosphatase – Acid phosphatase – AST aspatate amino transferase – ALT alanine amino transferase

MCQ The normal concentration of RBCs in an adult female is a. 2, 700,

MCQ The normal concentration of RBCs in an adult female is a. 2, 700, 000/cubic mm b. 5000/cubic mm c. 5, 200, 000/cubic mm d. 4, 700, 000/cubic mm e. 30, 000 / cubic mm

 The diameter of a biconcave disc of RBC is a. 7 -8 µ

The diameter of a biconcave disc of RBC is a. 7 -8 µ b. 1 -2 µ c. 3 -4 µ d. 12 -14 µ

Thank-you Questions ? ?

Thank-you Questions ? ?