FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT Default Techniques vs FBA Default Techniques

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FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT

FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT

Default Techniques vs. FBA • Default Techniques / Technologies • Intrusive, coercive, or punishment-based

Default Techniques vs. FBA • Default Techniques / Technologies • Intrusive, coercive, or punishment-based interventions • Often selected arbitrarily • Some people get it, others do not. • Use is often based on past effectiveness. • FBA • Understanding why a behavior occurs provides options on how it can be changed • Decreases reliance on default technologies

Topography vs. Function of Behavior • Topography = form of the behavior • Function

Topography vs. Function of Behavior • Topography = form of the behavior • Function = function of the behavior • What do you get out of it. • Topographies of problem behavior • Can serve the same function • Can serve different functions • Function is more important for intervention than form

Functions of Problem Behavior • Positive Reinforcement • “You are getting something” • Negative

Functions of Problem Behavior • Positive Reinforcement • “You are getting something” • Negative Reinforcement • “You are getting out of something” • Functions can be • Socially mediated or automatic

Positive Reinforcement • Social • Attention from others • Access to tangible stimuli •

Positive Reinforcement • Social • Attention from others • Access to tangible stimuli • Automatic • Physical Stimulation

Negative Reinforcement • Social • Escape from aversive or difficult tasks • Avoid the

Negative Reinforcement • Social • Escape from aversive or difficult tasks • Avoid the situation in the first place • Automatic • Escape from aversive stimulation

FBA and Prevention of Problem Behavior • When default technologies are used, other problem

FBA and Prevention of Problem Behavior • When default technologies are used, other problem behaviors may emerge • Acting out, violence, etc. • Reduction of learning • FBA • May avoid the development of new problem behaviors • May identify conditions that pose risks for the development • of future problem behaviors

Level of Difficulty Level of Precision Continuum of FBA Methods Analog functional analysis Direct

Level of Difficulty Level of Precision Continuum of FBA Methods Analog functional analysis Direct observation in natural routine Indirect Assessments

Functional (Experimental) Analysis • Antecedents and consequences are arranged so that their separate effects

Functional (Experimental) Analysis • Antecedents and consequences are arranged so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured • Often referred to as analog • Similar to what is occurring in natural routine, but more systematic • Allows for better control

Typical Conditions • Contingent attention • Contingent escape • Alone • Control (e. g.

Typical Conditions • Contingent attention • Contingent escape • Alone • Control (e. g. , “free play”) • These are presented one at a time until a pattern of problem behavior emerges

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Attention Function

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Attention Function

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Escape Function

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Escape Function

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Automatic Reinforcement

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Automatic Reinforcement

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Undifferentiated Pattern

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Undifferentiated Pattern

Advantages of Functional Analysis • Yields a clear demonstration of the variable(s) that relate

Advantages of Functional Analysis • Yields a clear demonstration of the variable(s) that relate to the occurrence of problem behavior • Serve as the standard to which all other forms of FBA are evaluated • Enable the development of effective reinforcement-based treatment

Limitations of Functional Analysis • May temporarily strengthen the problem behavior • May result

Limitations of Functional Analysis • May temporarily strengthen the problem behavior • May result in the behavior acquiring new functions • Acceptability may be low • Difficult to use for serious, low frequency behaviors • If conducted in contrived settings, may not identify idiosyncratic variables related to problem behavior • Requires time, effort, and professional expertise

Descriptive FBA • Direct observation of problem behavior under naturally occurring conditions • Events

Descriptive FBA • Direct observation of problem behavior under naturally occurring conditions • Events are NOT arranged in a systematic manner • Different Forms • ABC Continuous Recording • ABC Narrative Recording • Scatterplot

ABC Continuous Recording • Record • Occurrences of targeted problem behaviors and selected environmental

ABC Continuous Recording • Record • Occurrences of targeted problem behaviors and selected environmental events • Within the natural routine • During a specified period of time

Advantages of ABC Continuous Recording • Uses precise measures • Provides useful contextual information

Advantages of ABC Continuous Recording • Uses precise measures • Provides useful contextual information and correlations regarding environmental events and the problem behavior • Can provide useful information for later functional analyses • Does not require disruption of the individual’s routine

Limitations • Often, antecedents and consequences do not reliably precede and follow problem behavior

Limitations • Often, antecedents and consequences do not reliably precede and follow problem behavior • Making relationships or correlations difficult to detect • Solution - use conditional probabilities • Proportion of occurrences of problem behavior preceded by a specific antecedent • Proportion of the occurrence of problem behavior followed by a specific consequence • Must use with caution

ABC Narrative Recording • Data are collected only when behavior(s) of interest are observed

ABC Narrative Recording • Data are collected only when behavior(s) of interest are observed • Recording is open-ended • Thus, it is less time-consuming than continuous recording

Sample Narrative Recording Form

Sample Narrative Recording Form

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Utility in identifying behavioral function are not established

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Utility in identifying behavioral function are not established • May yield false positives • Data is only collected when the problem behavior occurs • The same antecedent and consequent events may be present when problem behavior is absent

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Reliability may be low • Unless trained, observers

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Reliability may be low • Unless trained, observers may report “inferred states” rather than events • It is often difficult to discriminate which environmental events actually occasion the problem behavior

Scatterplot • Procedure for recording the extent to which a target behavior occurs more

Scatterplot • Procedure for recording the extent to which a target behavior occurs more often at particular times than others • Similar to time sampling • Divide day into blocks of time (e. g. , a series of 30 -min segments) • For each time period, enter a symbol to indicate whether problem behavior occurred a lot, some, or not at all • Analyze for patterns to identify temporal distributions of behavior and events that occur at that time

Sample Scatterplot

Sample Scatterplot

Advantages of Scatterplots • Identify time periods during which the problem behavior occurs •

Advantages of Scatterplots • Identify time periods during which the problem behavior occurs • Can be useful for pinpointing periods of the day when more focused ABC assessments can be conducted

Limitations of Scatterplots • Utility of scatterplots is unknown • Subjective in nature

Limitations of Scatterplots • Utility of scatterplots is unknown • Subjective in nature

Indirect FBA • Do not involve observing the behavior • Involve soliciting another’s recollection

Indirect FBA • Do not involve observing the behavior • Involve soliciting another’s recollection of the behavior • Examples: • Structured interviews • Checklists • Rating scales • Questionnaires

Structured Behavioral Interviews • Goal: Obtain clear objective information about the problem behavior(s). •

Structured Behavioral Interviews • Goal: Obtain clear objective information about the problem behavior(s). • May include: • Antecedents and consequences of the behavior • Other information • Examples • Interview significant others • Interview student him/herself

Behavior Rating Scales • Ask informants to estimate the extent to which behavior occurs

Behavior Rating Scales • Ask informants to estimate the extent to which behavior occurs under specified conditions • Hypotheses about function of behavior are based on scores associated with each condition • Those conditions with the highest score are hypothesized to be related to the problem behavior

Advantages of Indirect FBA • Useful source of information for guiding subsequent, more objective

Advantages of Indirect FBA • Useful source of information for guiding subsequent, more objective assessments • Contribute to hypothesis development regarding the variables that may occasion or maintain problem behavior • Very convenient because they do not require direct observation of behavior

Limitations of Indirect FBA • Informants may not be accurate • Informants may be

Limitations of Indirect FBA • Informants may not be accurate • Informants may be biased • Little research exists to support the reliability of information obtained from indirect assessments • Not recommended as principal means of identifying functions of behaviors. • Best used for hypothesis development.

Conducting an FBA • Gather information via indirect and descriptive assessments • Interpret information

Conducting an FBA • Gather information via indirect and descriptive assessments • Interpret information and formulate hypotheses • Test hypotheses using functional analysis • Develop intervention options based on the function of problem behavior

Gathering Information • Conduct functional assessment interview with individual’s care providers • Use to:

Gathering Information • Conduct functional assessment interview with individual’s care providers • Use to: • Define target problem behaviors, • Identify and define potential antecedents and consequences • Determine what other assessments are warranted • Conduct direct observations of the problem behavior within the natural routine • Use this information to confirm/disconfirm information obtained in interviews

Interpreting Information and Formulating Hypotheses • Write hypothesis statements in ABC format Antecedent When

Interpreting Information and Formulating Hypotheses • Write hypothesis statements in ABC format Antecedent When Tonisha is prompted to wash her hands in preparation for lunch, Behavior she screams and tantrums, which is followed by… Consequence termination of hand washing and lunch by being sent to time-out. Hypothesized function = escape from hand washing or lunch

Testing Hypotheses • Conduct a functional analysis • Always include a control condition •

Testing Hypotheses • Conduct a functional analysis • Always include a control condition • Select additional conditions depending upon hypotheses • If positive reinforcement (attention) is a hypothesis, conduct contingent attention • If negative reinforcement is a hypothesis, conduct contingent escape • If automatic reinforcement is a hypothesis, conduct alone condition • Alternate conditions in counterbalanced fashion until a pattern emerges

Brief Functional Analyses • Conducting a functional analysis in a short period of time

Brief Functional Analyses • Conducting a functional analysis in a short period of time • Procedure • Implement one session of the control condition • Implement one session of each test condition • Implement a contingency reversal

Contingency Reversal • Used to confirm hypothesis by: • Providing reinforcement for an alternative

Contingency Reversal • Used to confirm hypothesis by: • Providing reinforcement for an alternative behavior • Problem behavior no longer produces reinforcement

Sample Brief Functional Analysis with Contingency Reversal Rate of Behavior per Min Control 4

Sample Brief Functional Analysis with Contingency Reversal Rate of Behavior per Min Control 4 Cont. Attn. Cont. Esc. for Esc. Requests 3 2 1 Problem Behavior 0 1 2 3 Sessions 4 5 6

Developing an Intervention • FBA does NOT identify the interventions that will be effective

Developing an Intervention • FBA does NOT identify the interventions that will be effective • DOES identify powerful reinforcers that can be used in intervention

FBA and Intervention • When the function of problem behavior has been identified, intervention

FBA and Intervention • When the function of problem behavior has been identified, intervention can consist of: • Altering antecedent variables • Altering consequent variables • Teaching alternative behaviors

Altering Antecedent Variables • Change and/or eliminate • Motivating operation for problem behavior •

Altering Antecedent Variables • Change and/or eliminate • Motivating operation for problem behavior • Discriminative stimuli that trigger problem behavior

Altering Consequent Variables • Place problem behavior on extinction • Withhold identified reinforcer when

Altering Consequent Variables • Place problem behavior on extinction • Withhold identified reinforcer when problem behavior occurs

Teaching Alternative Behaviors • Select appropriate behaviors that serve the same function • Provide

Teaching Alternative Behaviors • Select appropriate behaviors that serve the same function • Provide reinforcer that previously maintained problem behavior contingent upon the new, alternative behavior

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If problem behavior = escape function • Intervention should provide escape for alternative behavior • OR alter task demands to make escape less reinforcing

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If problem behavior = gain function • Intervention should provide desired outcome (access to attention or tangibles) for alternative behavior • OR alter antecedent conditions to make attention and/or tangibles less reinforcing

Alter the ABC Contingency Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work…

Alter the ABC Contingency Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Behavior He hits others, which is followed by… Consequence Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion.

Alter the Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Deshawn is

Alter the Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Deshawn is provided with a peer buddy during work/play periods Behavior He hits others, which is followed by… Consequence Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion. These are irrelevant because problem behavior is avoided.

Alter the Behavior Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Behavior

Alter the Behavior Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Behavior He hits others, which is followed by… Deshawn is prompted to ask a peer or adult to play/help, which is followed by… Consequence Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion. Attention in the form of socialization and help.

Alter the Consequence Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Behavior

Alter the Consequence Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Behavior He hits others, which is followed by… Consequence Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion. Neutrally blocking the hitting and ignoring Deshawn.

Summary • Prior to intervention • Identify the function • Escape • Gain (attention/tangible)

Summary • Prior to intervention • Identify the function • Escape • Gain (attention/tangible) • Automatic • When designing intervention • Modify the ABC contingency

Summary • Assessment continues after intervention begins • Monitor effectiveness • Changes in function

Summary • Assessment continues after intervention begins • Monitor effectiveness • Changes in function over time

Conclusion • FBA provides additional information that can be used in understanding behavior. •

Conclusion • FBA provides additional information that can be used in understanding behavior. • Allows the clinician to have more information • Is quite effective • Make sure you understand the limitations