Frog Dissection Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from

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Frog Dissection

Frog Dissection

Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish

Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish

Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p 100 -107

Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p 100 -107

FROG LATIN meaning ANIMALIA KINGDOM _______ PHYLUM ______________ CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” SUBPHYLUM ______________ AMPHIBIA

FROG LATIN meaning ANIMALIA KINGDOM _______ PHYLUM ______________ CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” SUBPHYLUM ______________ AMPHIBIA “double life” CLASS ________________ ANURA “without a tail” ORDER _______________

AMPHIBIAN CHARACTERISTICS Moist, thin skin without scales Aquatic larva changes to terrestrial adult Feet

AMPHIBIAN CHARACTERISTICS Moist, thin skin without scales Aquatic larva changes to terrestrial adult Feet without claws Respiration with gills, lungs, skin, mouth Closed 2 loop circulation Ectothermic (cold blooded) Eggs without shells or multicellular membranes

http: //users. erols. com/jkimball. ma. ultranet/Biology. Pages/V/Vertebrates. html http: //www. spekulantenguide. de/gifs/salamanderw. jpg

http: //users. erols. com/jkimball. ma. ultranet/Biology. Pages/V/Vertebrates. html http: //www. spekulantenguide. de/gifs/salamanderw. jpg

ECTOTHERMIC “cold blooded” Body temperature is dependent on surrounding environment http: //www. vanscyoc. net/randy/garden/wildlife/image

ECTOTHERMIC “cold blooded” Body temperature is dependent on surrounding environment http: //www. vanscyoc. net/randy/garden/wildlife/image 4. htm

HIBERNATION/ ESTIVATION FAT stored in FAT BODIES provides energy Images from: http: //www. enc.

HIBERNATION/ ESTIVATION FAT stored in FAT BODIES provides energy Images from: http: //www. enc. org/Classroom_Calendar/CC_Units/Unit_Images/185. jpg http: //www. reptilis. org/pyxi/image 5. htm

What sex is it? Images from: http: //sps. k 12. ar. us/massengale/frog_dissection. htm

What sex is it? Images from: http: //sps. k 12. ar. us/massengale/frog_dissection. htm

Used for breathing Eardrum, located behind eyes Nictitating membrane Clear eyelid, protects the eye

Used for breathing Eardrum, located behind eyes Nictitating membrane Clear eyelid, protects the eye image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html

NO CLAWS image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html

NO CLAWS image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html

EXIT OPENINGS DIGESTIVE WASTE (feces) = _________ ANUS Shared EXCRETORY & REPRODUCTIVE EXIT =

EXIT OPENINGS DIGESTIVE WASTE (feces) = _________ ANUS Shared EXCRETORY & REPRODUCTIVE EXIT = _______________ UROGENITAL PORE (Urine & eggs or Urine & sperm)

Imagse from: http: //www. animationlibrary. com http: //www. geocities. com/animalbio/biology. htm TONGUE attached at

Imagse from: http: //www. animationlibrary. com http: //www. geocities. com/animalbio/biology. htm TONGUE attached at front not back like yours!

image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html Tube leading to the stomach

image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html Tube leading to the stomach Equalize pressure in inner ear Used for holding prey Used for breathing

image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html Front attached, aids in grabbing

image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html Front attached, aids in grabbing prey GLOTTIS Opening to lungs GULLET Opening to esophagus

OVARIES Make eggs Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

OVARIES Make eggs Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html Carry eggs to cloaca Add

Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html Carry eggs to cloaca Add jelly coating

TESTES MAKE SPERM http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

TESTES MAKE SPERM http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

TESTES KIDNEY

TESTES KIDNEY

Image from; http: //faculty. clintoncc. suny. edu/faculty/Michael. Gregory/files/Bio%20102%20 Laboratory/frog%20 dissection_files/frame. htm Females may have

Image from; http: //faculty. clintoncc. suny. edu/faculty/Michael. Gregory/files/Bio%20102%20 Laboratory/frog%20 dissection_files/frame. htm Females may have black & white eggs

image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html Pericardial membrane around heart Mesentery

image from: http: //www. spc. cc. tx. us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frogdissectlist. html Pericardial membrane around heart Mesentery holds intestines together

FAT BODIES Store fat for energy during: Hibernation Breeding Image from: http: //step. sdsc.

FAT BODIES Store fat for energy during: Hibernation Breeding Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

Gall Bladder Image from: http: //school. discovery. com/quizzes 6/muskopf/frog. html

Gall Bladder Image from: http: //school. discovery. com/quizzes 6/muskopf/frog. html

Esophagus Tube that connects mouth to stomach Stomach Make acid and digestive enzymes Start

Esophagus Tube that connects mouth to stomach Stomach Make acid and digestive enzymes Start digestion (grind up food)

LIVER: Make bile Store glycogen Store vitamins Process toxins (including nitrogen waste) for kidneys

LIVER: Make bile Store glycogen Store vitamins Process toxins (including nitrogen waste) for kidneys GALL BLADDER Store bile

PANCREAS

PANCREAS

Pancreas (enlarged)

Pancreas (enlarged)

PANCREAS: Makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, GLUCAGON TRYPSIN- breaks down proteins INSULIN- tells cells to store

PANCREAS: Makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, GLUCAGON TRYPSIN- breaks down proteins INSULIN- tells cells to store glucose from bloodstream as glycogen GLUCAGON- tells cells to release stored glucose to blood stream

SPLEEN Produces and stores new RBC’s and processes old worn out ones

SPLEEN Produces and stores new RBC’s and processes old worn out ones

http: //biog-101 -104. bio. cornell. edu/Biog 101_104/tutorials/frog. html SMALL INTESTINE DUODENUM Receives trypsin and

http: //biog-101 -104. bio. cornell. edu/Biog 101_104/tutorials/frog. html SMALL INTESTINE DUODENUM Receives trypsin and bile; finishes digestion ILEUM Absorbs nutrients VILLI Increase surface area http: //neuromedia. neurobio. ucla. edu/campbell/epithelium/wp_images/107%20 villi. jpg

http: //www. flushing. k 12. mi. us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/largeintestine. html LARGE INTESTINE Removes water from digestive

http: //www. flushing. k 12. mi. us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/largeintestine. html LARGE INTESTINE Removes water from digestive waste; concentrates feces

10 Body Systems : __________ EXCRETORY Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells

10 Body Systems : __________ EXCRETORY Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells Nitrogen waste has different chemical forms: AMMONIA ______ UREA _____ URIC ACID _______ MOST TOXIC made from ammonia by liver HUMANS AMPHIBIANS LEAST TOXIC needs the least water to dilute BIRDS, REPTILES FISH

ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME! DIGESTIVE wasteleft over from undigested food travels through

ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME! DIGESTIVE wasteleft over from undigested food travels through digestive system leaves through digestive system as feces EXCRETORY waste(Also called NITROGEN WASTE) made by cells from break down of proteins travels through blood stream leaves through excretory system as ammonia, urea, or uric acid

KIDNEYS- Remove nitrogen waste from blood and dilute it with water to make urine;

KIDNEYS- Remove nitrogen waste from blood and dilute it with water to make urine; osmoregulation Image from: http: //step. sdsc. edu/projects 95/Frog. Dissection/index. html

URINARY BLADDER STORES URINE MADE BY KIDNEYS LARVAE (Tadpoles) Excrete AMMONIA like fish Adult

URINARY BLADDER STORES URINE MADE BY KIDNEYS LARVAE (Tadpoles) Excrete AMMONIA like fish Adult frogs excrete UREA to conserve water http: //www. manheimcentral. org/~tw 005690/Frog/frog. htm

CLOACA Posterior opening that serves as the only opening for the intestinal, reproductive and

CLOACA Posterior opening that serves as the only opening for the intestinal, reproductive and urinary tracts

HEART 3 chambered heart http: //biologyjunction. com/frog_dissection. htm

HEART 3 chambered heart http: //biologyjunction. com/frog_dissection. htm

Heart • 3 chambered heart • Pumps blood • Atria to ventricles to body

Heart • 3 chambered heart • Pumps blood • Atria to ventricles to body and lungs and back to atria. • Ventricle contains both high oxygen and low oxygen blood (mixed) – Not as efficient as if ventricle is divided – Such as in mammals

http: //www. flushing. k 12. mi. us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/index. html LUNGS: GAS EXCHANGE http: //www. stclement.

http: //www. flushing. k 12. mi. us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/index. html LUNGS: GAS EXCHANGE http: //www. stclement. pvt. k 12. il. us/student. Web/science 98/Garritt. Pat. M/alveoli. gif