Freedom of the Human Person (Lesson 5)
Objectives: • Realize that all actions have consequences • Evaluate and exercise prudence in choices • Realize that choices have consequences • Realize that some things are given up while other are obtained in making choices
Why do we have choices in life?
Rubrics: Dealing with Fake News Dialogue 1 Situational Story (5 pts) be divided into 2 • The classes will Evaluators Relevance to the (5 pts) groups and will enacttheme the given 3 situations. Life Priorities Preparation (5 pts) Intuition (5 pts) 4 Choosing a Profession 1. What have we learned from the given Total (20 pts) situations? Good VS Bad Influence 5 2. How does making choices help you?
Freedom of the Human Person (Lesson 5)
Aristotle (The Power of Volition)
The will of humanity is an instrument of free choice. It is within the power of everyone to be good or bad, worthy or worthless. #Magpakabuti. OMagpakasama
This is borne out by: • Our inner awareness of an aptitude to do right and wrong. • The common testimony of all human beings. • The rewards and punishment of rulers. • The acts general emloyment praise and acts, Moral are always ofparticular are blame. in our power and we are responsible for them.
Aristotle • Human being is rational. • Reason is a divine characteristic. • Humans have the spark of the divine (no
St. Thomas Aquinas (Love is Freedom/Spiritual Freedom)
• Of all creatures of God, human beings have the unique power to change themselves and the things around them for the better. #Kayang. Magbago #May. Layang. Magbago
St. Thomas Aquinas • Human as a moral agent. • Both spiritual and body elements (spiritual and Human beingwhich has to develop and perfect material) helps A human being therefore has a supernatural, himself by doing hisour daily tasks (living a us to understand transcendental destiny. This means that he righteousasand a virtuous life). complexity human can rise above his ordinary being or self to He beings. transcends his mortal state of life and a highest being of self. #Choosing. Responsibly soars to an immortal state of life.
• The power of change cannot be done by human being alone, but is achieved through cooperation with God. • Perfection by participation here means that it is a union with humanity with God. • Change should promote not just any purely private advantage, but the good of the
St. Thomas Aquinas • He gives a fourfold classification of law; eternal, natural, human, and divine. • Human beings, as being rational, have laws that should not only be obeyed but also obeyed voluntarily and with understanding (i. e.
• The natural law, in its ethical sense, applies only to human beings. #Do. Good #Avoid. Evil
St. Thomas Aquinas • Both natural and human laws are concerned with ends determined simply by humanity’s nature.
• It is the decree of God that governs all • The human participation in the eternal law creation. is discovered reason (based on the • and “That law which isbythe Supreme Reason first sufficient reason). cannotprinciples; be understood to be otherwise the unchangeable and eternal.
Fourfold classification of law • Eternal law – the decree of God that governs all creations • Natural law – applies only to human beings; good: sought after, evil: avoided - human participation in the eternal law and is discovered by reason • Human law – obedience with man-made laws • Divine law – law to transcending human being’s nature basing on internal disposition
Love other than law (Aquinas) • Love rather than law transforms humanity • Love is in consonance with humanity’s freedom nature • Law commands and complete; Love calls and invite
Love other than law (Aquinas) • Freedom in humanity was emphasized but it is love that governs humanity’s life • Since God is Love, then Love is the guiding principle of humanity toward his selfperception and happiness – his ultimate destiny.
Aristotle • The purpose of human being is to be happy (to live a virtuous life). • Human beings have to develop to the full power—rational, moral, social, emotional, and physical here on
Material and of REPRESENTATIVE OF EXISTENTIALISM Conscience Beacause St. Thomas Aquinas Spirituality Spiritual God is Love and Love is Our Destiny • Establishes the existence of God as a first cause. • Of all God’s creations, human beings have the unique power to change themselves (Individua l Freedom) and things around them
Jean Paul Sartre: Free Individual Choice • The human person is the desire to be God: the desire to exist as a being which has its sufficient ground in itself (en sui causa). • The human person builds the road to the destiny of his/her choosing; he/she is the creator (Srathern 1998)
Jean Paul Sartre’s Principle in Existentialism: Existence precedes essence • The person, first, exists, encounters himself and surges up in the world then defines himself afterward (what he makes of himself)
Jean Paul Sartre’s Principle in Existentialism: Existence precedes essence • The person is provided with a supreme opportunity to give meaning to one’s life (one fills the world with meaning).
Jean Paul Sartre’s Principle in Existentialism: Existence precedes essence • Freedom is, therefore, the very core and the door to authentic existence--realized only in deeds that are committed alone, in absolute freedom and responsibility and which, therefore, the character of true
Jean Paul Sartre’s Principle in Existentialism: Existence precedes essence • The person is what one has done and is doing
THEORY OF SOCIAL CONTRACT Jean Paul Sartre’s Principle in Existentialism: Existence precedes essence • The human person who tries to escape obligations and strive to be en-soi (i. e. “I was born this way/ Ganito ako in tagalog) is acting on bad faith (mauvais foi).
Law of Nature (lex naturalis) • Is a precept or general rule established by reason, by which as a person is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life or takes away the means of preserving the same; and to omit that by which he thinks it may be best preserved.
Thomas Hobbes • We should seek peace (his first law of nature). • The reasonableness of seeking peace immediately suggests a second law of nature, which is that we mutually divest ourselves of certain rights (e. g. the right to take another person’s life). • A person must be willing (necessary for peacebuilding; e. g. Rizal’s death that gives the idea of independence).
Contract • Mutual transferring of rights • Basis of the notion of moral obligations of duty.
• The individual self should not be governed by momentary impulse by prejudice arising from passion (e. g. avoiding provocations).
• The laws of nature can be said to represent axioms and postulates that render the deduction possible. • “What are the conditions under which the transition from the natural state of war to the state of human beings living in organized societies becomes intelligible? ” • Human nature and not Godgiven laws (faith vs reason).
Thomas Hobbes (in Leviathan) “The fundamental law of nature seeks peace and follows it, while at the same time, by the sum of natural right, we should defend ourselves by all means we can. ”
Thomas Hobbes (in Leviathan) “some rights that no human being can be understood by words, or other signs, to have abandoned or transferred. ”(i. e. law abolishments)
“Contracts are like hearts, they are meant • Made in the state of nature are not to generally binding, for, if one fears be broken. ” that you will violate your part of tha bargain, then no true agreement can be reached (contracts can be broken). -Ray Croc (Founder of Mc. Donalds)
Law of Nature • Human beings perform their covenant made. • Without law of nature, covenants are in vain and but empty words; to break is unjust. (broken promises)
Thomas Hobbes (in Leviathan) “…that covenants of mutual trust are invalid when there is fear of nonperformance on either part, and that in the natural condition of war this fear is always present. ”
Thomas Hobbes (in Leviathan) “There are no valid covenants and hence, no justice and injustice until the commonwealth is established; that is, until a coercive power has been established which will compel human beings to
Thomas Hobbes • Human beings seek selfpreservation and security; however, are unable to attain this end in the natural condition of war. • The laws of nature are unable to achieve the desired end by themselves alone. • There should be a common power or government backed by force and able to
Thomas Hobbes Distinction of Commonwealth (by institution) • When it has been established through the covenant of every member of a multitude with every other member.
Thomas Hobbes Distinction of Commonwealth (by acquisition) • When the sovereign power has been acquired by force. But both doesn’t affect NEW FIT sovereignity SOVEREIGNITY TO BE TAUGHT
Jean Jacques Rousseau • One of the most influential and the most famous philosophers of the French Enlightenment in the 18 th Century.
Jean Jacques Rousseau • In his book “The Social Contract, ” he elaborated his theory of human nature (the beginning of a new era of sentimental piety; i. e. EDSA Revolution as a social contract).
Absolute Hobbes. Monarchy and Absolute Democracy and Individualism Rousseau • The state owes its origin to a social Community or contract freely civil community entered into byprotect its members. themselves from. Absolute Democracy and • They differedone in another. Individualism their interpretations To avoid WAR Absolute Monarchy
Thomas Hobbes • To end the continuous and self destructive condition of warfare, humanity founded the state with its sovereign power of control by means of a mutual consent.
Jean Jacques Rousseau • He believes that a human being is born free and good. • Humans become bad due to evil influence of the society, civilization, learning and progress (losing original goodness).
What are the • things that you consider in • making choices? Not a historical event, but a philosophical fiction, a metaphor, and a certain way of looking at a society of voluntary collection of agreeable individuals. An actual agreement and actually signed by the people of their representatives (Solomon & Higgins
Autodidactics • derived from autodidact- a person who has learned a subject without the benefit of a teacher or formal education; a selftaught person. • a philosophical activity wherein questions regarding a certain topic will be constructed. Answers should also be indicated.