Franz Anton Mesmer Franz Anton Mesmer Born May

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Franz Anton Mesmer

Franz Anton Mesmer

Franz Anton Mesmer Born: May 23, 1734 in Swabia, Germany Died: March 15, 1815

Franz Anton Mesmer Born: May 23, 1734 in Swabia, Germany Died: March 15, 1815 at age 81 in Meersburg, Germany Nine Siblings Strong Catholic Family

The Mesmer Family Devote Catholics Father, Anton Mesmer served as Gamekeeper to the Bishop

The Mesmer Family Devote Catholics Father, Anton Mesmer served as Gamekeeper to the Bishop - kept care of animals on property Mother – Maria Ursula Michel As Gamekeeper, Anton Mesmer made a respectable and comfortable living – poverty not a problem. Father had pull with the Bishop so Mesmer & family grew up with advantages

Mesmer's Education 1743: Mesmer goes to a school run by monks (9 years old)

Mesmer's Education 1743: Mesmer goes to a school run by monks (9 years old) -this school was to prepare him for University and ultimately priesthood 1750: Finished Monastic School and goes to University of Dillingen in Bavaria -studies Philosophy for 4 years Proceeded to University of Ingolstadt (Bavaria) to study Theology -at this university he has more intellectual studies, rather than just Catholic -got an into to modern thought & ideas - the intellectual bias allowed him to be more receptive to the new scientific ideas After his studies at the Universities realized Priesthood was not for him

More Education! 1759: Mesmer gives law school a shot -after one year figures out

More Education! 1759: Mesmer gives law school a shot -after one year figures out that it is also not for him 1760: 6 years of medical studies in Vienna – working for MD Mesmer writes his dissertation on "A Physico. Medical Inquiry Concerning the Influence of the Planets" - would later be called "The Influence of the Planets on the Human Body" Proposed to show the heavenly bodies affect human beings -during the Age of Reason so concepts like this were not widely supported Has education in: Philosophy, Theology, Medicine, and Science (experimental and speculative)

Maria Anne Von Bosch Married in 1768 She is ten years older than him,

Maria Anne Von Bosch Married in 1768 She is ten years older than him, has been married, and brings with her a teenage son Comes with great wealth from father and late husband After marriage they buy a mansion in Vienna Some speculated Mesmer's intentions – Mesmer was 34 at this point and looking to settle down with a lifelong partner, not just youthful romance

Mesmer's Vienna 1768 -1778 City was on the rise – Seven Years War had

Mesmer's Vienna 1768 -1778 City was on the rise – Seven Years War had ended Vienna was steadily growing – reached 150, 000 in 1770's Filled with music - "Rococo Style" Multinational citizens Moving towards a scientific government, not so faith based Catholic church should be renovated in light of modern, rational, scientific idea Mesmer's reputation at this time – fashionable Viennese physician with a taste for science and music

Mesmer the Entertainer Held an open house weekly for music lovers Landscaped his home

Mesmer the Entertainer Held an open house weekly for music lovers Landscaped his home with gardens, groves, walks, fountains Outside theatre weather permitting Played cello, clavichord, and glass harmonica – when not practicing Would often play with performers at his open houses

Mozart and Mesmer 1768 – Mesmer first hears of Mozart Here and there a

Mozart and Mesmer 1768 – Mesmer first hears of Mozart Here and there a Young Mozart had some success but was struggling touch - His father was pushy and complained a lot Of the Magnet, Mesmer finds Mozart and has his play at one of his open houses The stone of Mesmer 1790: Mozart references Mesmer in his opera, "Cosi fan tutte" Who was born and bred In Germany, And became so famous In France

The Theory – Animal Gravitation Page 36 "Universal Fluid" - explains gravitation, magnetism, electricity,

The Theory – Animal Gravitation Page 36 "Universal Fluid" - explains gravitation, magnetism, electricity, light, heat, and anything else of that relative nature Everyone has magnetic fluid flowing through channels throughout body Blockages in the flow caused emotional and physical illness 1774 – during magnetic treatment on a woman, Mesmer believed he could manipulate it at will, balancing her “flow” and curing her Animal Gravitation Animal Magnetism, then found Mesmerism When he joins his theory with actual medical science he creates the basis for a new science, Abnormal Psychology Franzl Oesterlin Suffered from psychosomatic illness - a physical disease that is thought to be cause or made worse by mental factors Symptoms: convulsions, vomiting, temporary blindness, hallucinations, paralysis for extended periods of time, and more After trying all traditional remedies, Mesmer concluded that no orthodox treatment was going to work Mesmer found a way to predict and was convinced this was an example of Animal Gravitation An active magnetic force must exist in our bodies

Franzl and Hell Mesmer went to his good friend, Maximillin Hell – Professor of

Franzl and Hell Mesmer went to his good friend, Maximillin Hell – Professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna Manufactured magnets for Franzl July of 1774: first documented case of Mesmer using magnets for treatment Placed three magnets, one on her stomach and one on each leg and he was convinced it worked – it had restored the ebb and flow of the universal fluid Mesmer shared his success story with Hell, who quickly turned on him, taking the credit for the magnets Hell wrote an article claiming he was the reason for the positive effects of the magnets This ruined their friendship and started one of the many battles Mesmer would face the rest of his life

 Mesmer states that magnets didn’t have ability to actually produced the desired result,

Mesmer states that magnets didn’t have ability to actually produced the desired result, and they were too widely used to be credited for this Starts using other conductors with success – cloth and wood Concludes that it was his unique touch that was the magnet With this discovery, Mesmer appeals to Stoerck – head of Faculty of medicine - examine evidence and make a verdict on Animal Magnetism Stoerck refuses, too close to occultism Dr. Johann Cristoph Unzer wrote to Mesmer inquiring about his methods Mesmer wrote Letter to a Foreigh Physician (1775) in reply - had it copied and sent to many scientific institutions in German states and beyond

Ingenhouz of Vienna In an attempt to gain support, Mesmer invites Ingenhouz of Vienna,

Ingenhouz of Vienna In an attempt to gain support, Mesmer invites Ingenhouz of Vienna, an expert in medical biology (also skeptic), to his home to see Mesmer’s work firsthand He accepts, bringing a Physician along - Mesmer puts on a show for them After the demonstration on Franzl, Mesmer is sure he convinced Ingenhouz told him not to publish

Retry with Stoerck After successfully curing Franzl and demonstrating for Ingenhouz, Mesmer tries again

Retry with Stoerck After successfully curing Franzl and demonstrating for Ingenhouz, Mesmer tries again with Stoerck dodges him for a while and then finally agrees to a demonstration at Spanish Hospital in Vienna, Mesmer is unsuccessful in attempt to gain support, or even keep the attention of the physicians Frustrated, Mesmer takes The Franzl cure to the public - cured mental and nervous affliction ranging from depression to hysterical paralysis - this gave him reputation as a healer, began to take more patients, work more cures, and eventually becomes very popular in Vienna - acceptance of Animal Magnitism grew through the public (but not in the medical field)

The Blind Pianist Maria Theresa Paradies – father served the empress Normal until three

The Blind Pianist Maria Theresa Paradies – father served the empress Normal until three – woke up one day and couldn’t see Learned to live without sight, started preforming piano and known as The Blind Pianist All medical attempts failed to cure Maria Theresa – her optic nerve was undamaged, it was concluded that hysteria was the cause of her blindness and therefore incurable Mesmer knew of her case Stoerck allowed him to treat her after all failed attempts, he figured Mesmer couldn’t do harm at this point No one established good rapport when trying to treat her and believed that was essential Mesmer started his therapies with great success Parents were ecstatic – spread the news Show a movie clip https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=o. ALl. XF_r. TXw @ 1: 10 Mesmer convinced them to let her move in

The Blind Pianist Mesmer believed he had finally made it – no one could

The Blind Pianist Mesmer believed he had finally made it – no one could doubt him any longer, he had cured the incurable, he had a leg up on all the medical professionals who failed Maria Theresa and all those who had doubted him before Professor Joseph Barth an ophthalmologist says no way – if she was curable, he would have cured her Barth teams up with Ingenhouz to raise doubts in Maria Theresa’s father Maria Theresa loses ability to play piano as well as before -new sight makes her nervous, nervousness made her hit the wrong keys -had a grant from the empress for being disabled and still a pianist, father is worried she will lose that if she isn’t blind anymore and then will be stuck with the burden of a half crippled burden on her parents Paradies removes his daughter from Mesmer’s care Beginning of the dark suspicions about Mesmer and his strickly female patients

Problems in Paris 1778 – Mesmer moves to Paris, seeks scientific acceptance rather than

Problems in Paris 1778 – Mesmer moves to Paris, seeks scientific acceptance rather than medical Scandals in Vienna had followed him to Paris, labeled him Occultist - he was a “quack” and the physicians of Paris considered themselves warned French Academy of Sciences – President of academy Charles Leroy - Memsmer failed to convince Leroy or the academy - fell back to medical Royal Society of Medicine – more open to novelties - The society sent two members to examine Mesmer, his clinic, and his cures

Royal Society of Medicine Mesmer chose one patient with epilepsy and a number of

Royal Society of Medicine Mesmer chose one patient with epilepsy and a number of patients suffering less severe nervous ailments General pattern of practice (pg 96) The two society members deemed his practice “unworthy of the medical profession” Moved to Creiteil because too many patients for his small apartment in Paris Started group therapy https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=o. ALl. XF_r. TXw 1: 24: 16 Success with group therapy – many patients with apparently incurable diseased who were cured by Mesmer signed formal certificates Sent testimonials to the secretary of the Royal Society, asked they be forwarded to the other members, sent back unopened, resent, regected

Mesmer and Charles - Charles Delson – Parisian physician and practitioner of Mesmerism -

Mesmer and Charles - Charles Delson – Parisian physician and practitioner of Mesmerism - total believer in animal magnetism - private physician, high rank in French medical profession - Converted skeptic, never lost trust in animal magnetism - Learned the method, had himself magnetized, became Mesmer’s assistant, and started his own clinic - Delson convinces Mesmer to take theory to Paris Faculty of Medicine (he’s a member) - Members of the faculty came to listen, only three were persuaded to stay for a demonstrations, “the facts are undoubtedly amazing, but inconclusive” - At this time Mesmer had failed to receive support from the Paris Faculty of Medicine, the Royal Society of Medicine, and the French Academy of Sciences

Next Step – Memoir - - 27 propositions for animal magnetism theory First steps

Next Step – Memoir - - 27 propositions for animal magnetism theory First steps are summary of his dissertation but with real examples instead of mere reference to laws of gravitation – insistent that his theory of universal fluid is the cause of properties of the body The next present his reasoning for changing theory from animal gravitation to animal magnetism Then some attempt to explain the physics of the universal fluid All attempts together failed to make sense as a system Best Mesmer got out of the Memoir – a very small group of scientists reluctantly agreed that his central idea would be retained in some form

No Promise in Paris After every failed attempt, Mesmer threatens to leave Paris Wasn’t

No Promise in Paris After every failed attempt, Mesmer threatens to leave Paris Wasn’t a fan of leaving the ill and diseased behind and that they must suffer because no one would accept his practice His followers panicked – made a case to the queen to change his mind Queen turned the it over to the minister of state Maurepas - made a generous offer to which Mesmer declined Mesmer wanted to reveal his theory and practice to all in authority who could gain him scientific recognition but wanted to conceal as much from those looking to steal it Mesmer, not satisfied with Maurepas writes a letter to the queen - she never responds

Spa Retreat Mesmer eventually left Paris after all his struggles Retreats to Spa in

Spa Retreat Mesmer eventually left Paris after all his struggles Retreats to Spa in the Belgian Ardennes Spa known for mineral springs and other health resorts Mesmer is now suffering his own psychosomatic problems - refuses help from Delson, Mesmer is the true healer and only nature can re-balance him During his retreat – Short History of Animal Magnetism - said to be his best work, written very eloquently - tells the story of his trials and triumphs Returns to Paris Started working with Delson again, Delson had set up his own practice - Delson had matured as Mesmerizer - the two part ways – probably Mesmer’s ego

Secret Society After fallout with Delson, Mesmer heads back to Spa - brings some

Secret Society After fallout with Delson, Mesmer heads back to Spa - brings some loyal clients and sets up a clinic Meets Nicolas Bergasse – a lawyer - suggests a private practice, Mesmer loves the idea Bergasse (lawyer), Kornman (banker), and Mesmer establish Societe de l’Harmonie - Society of Harmony - the three agree on a contract (149) Mesmer later makes his own contract, contradicts the original (150) The Society brought Mesmerism to its fullest elaboration

An Official Investigation Michael Augustin Thouret -Investigations and Doubts Concerning Animal Magnitism” -didn’t do

An Official Investigation Michael Augustin Thouret -Investigations and Doubts Concerning Animal Magnitism” -didn’t do much harm Claude Louis Berthollet – member of Academy of Sciences, Faculty of Medicine -joined society of harmony Louis XVI -assembled a royal commission Benjamin Franklin on the commission -Delson Mesmerized trees -people reacted to both treated and untreated trees Faculty of Medicine officially outlaws the use of Animal Magnetism in medical practice

The Last Years 1785 - Mesmer finally gave up searching for validation In the

The Last Years 1785 - Mesmer finally gave up searching for validation In the next couple years he traveled through France visiting Society of Harmony 1802 leaves Paris to settle in Lake Constance - He retires a couple years later but still practices a little to prove he still has the power Years go by without word of Mesmerism -1812: Berlin Academy of Science, Professor Carl Wolfart writes eyewitness statements of Mesmerism -Takes back final Mesmer manuscript to be published 1814 Mesmerius Eventually settles for good in Meersburg

Discussion! What was Mesmer actually demonstrating in his practice? What did Delson demonstrate? Is

Discussion! What was Mesmer actually demonstrating in his practice? What did Delson demonstrate? Is that appropriate to use in medical/psychology practice? What are you thoughts?