France Absolute Monarchy One king one law one

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France Absolute Monarchy “One king, one law, one faith”

France Absolute Monarchy “One king, one law, one faith”

Henry IV and Sully • Politics – Desired to limit nobility • Economic changes

Henry IV and Sully • Politics – Desired to limit nobility • Economic changes – Led the way for mercantilism – Corve’e • National workforce paid for by taxes – Goal: European common market • Politique? • Henry was assassinated

Louis XIII and Richelieu • Louis XIII – Henry’s son: 9 years old •

Louis XIII and Richelieu • Louis XIII – Henry’s son: 9 years old • Queen Mother “ruled” Marie de Medicis – Built alliances with Spain – Appointed Cardinal Richelieu as the King’s Advisor • Richelieu’s Goal – – Church served France Land gains One law The King Campaign against the Huguenots

Louis XIV and Mazarin • Richelieu’s Legacy – Expand royal authority • Resentment among

Louis XIV and Mazarin • Richelieu’s Legacy – Expand royal authority • Resentment among nobility & wealthy • Louis XIV – Louis XIII’s son: 5 years old • Queen appointed Cardinal Mazarin as advisor – Resentment grew – Fronde: reverse absolute monarchy and preserve local autonomy • King flees anarchy king returns France “Happy”

Ensure Divine Right of kings 1. Propaganda and Political Image – • Grandeur Versailles

Ensure Divine Right of kings 1. Propaganda and Political Image – • Grandeur Versailles 2. Nobles & Social Groups benefit from his rule Did not limit local authority Did not abolish local institutions – – • What is Divine Right? – • Divinely appointed, answerable only to God Bishop Bossuet – Louis XIV “L’etat, c’est moi” » “I AM THE STATE” Victor over Fronde

Statistical Information on the Palace of Versailles Surface area of roofing 1, 100, 000

Statistical Information on the Palace of Versailles Surface area of roofing 1, 100, 000 square feet Floor space 51, 210 m 2 Number of windows 2, 153 Number of rooms 700 Staircases 67 Paintings in the museum’s collection 6, 123 Drawings in museum’s collection 1, 500 Engravings in museum’s collection 15, 034 Sculptures in museum’s collection 2, 102 Pieces of furniture and objets d’art 5. 210

Louis XIV suppresses Jansenists • Catholic theology – Opposed theological and political influence of

Louis XIV suppresses Jansenists • Catholic theology – Opposed theological and political influence of the Jesuits • Louis’ Response – Suppress the movements • Consequences: – Jansenists could have appealed to Huguenots – Eliminated hope for peaceful religious unity • Government prepares for war

One King, One Faith • Who were the Jansenists? • Concerned about the views

One King, One Faith • Who were the Jansenists? • Concerned about the views of the Jesuits – Did they assassinate Henry IV? – No free will, only saved by divine grace • Catholic – Originally banned – Let in by Henry IV educated the nobles • Some ideas similar to Protestantism – Banned by the Pope – Will Huguenots convert? • NO… • Louis chased them out as a threat to One King, One Faith

French Ministries • Louis Warrior king • French Economy – Colbert • Mercantilism major

French Ministries • Louis Warrior king • French Economy – Colbert • Mercantilism major commercial power • French military – Louvois • Military organization – Vauban • Military engineering

Early Wars • The War of Devolution – War of territory • Spain (England,

Early Wars • The War of Devolution – War of territory • Spain (England, Sweden, Holland Triple Alliance) vs. France – France invaded Spanish Belgian provinces – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle • Some land given to Louis • Invasion of the Netherlands – Holland (William of Orange) vs. France • Catholics & Protestants in Europe disliked Louis – No clear winner, very little territory change

Revocation Edict of Nantes • Original Purpose: – Religious Tolerance • France would stay

Revocation Edict of Nantes • Original Purpose: – Religious Tolerance • France would stay Catholic • Louis XIV revoked Edict – Goal: religious conformity • Belief Pious, God would be in his debt • One king, one law, one religion – Impact: Mistake • Protestant countries worried he would convert all of Europe • French people left and joined resistance

Later Wars • 9 years War – “The League” vs. France – Impact: Halt

Later Wars • 9 years War – “The League” vs. France – Impact: Halt expansion into Germany

War of Spanish Succession • Who gets the Spanish Throne? – France or Austria

War of Spanish Succession • Who gets the Spanish Throne? – France or Austria – Charles II of Spain leaves it to France Philip of Anjou, Grandson of Louis XIV • Louis invades Netherlands in the name of Philip • Response: Grand Alliance Forms – 13 Year War – France is ill-prepared • Signs the Treaty of Utrecht and Rastatt