FOS Nuclear Reactors FOS at high dose and

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FOS Nuclear Reactors • FOS at high dose and high temperature • Sensing Temperature

FOS Nuclear Reactors • FOS at high dose and high temperature • Sensing Temperature and Dose • • • In-core for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) In-core for Advanced High Temperature Reactors (AHTR) Dosimetry mapping. More efficient operations : with substantial monetary savings. Safety : Independent TID and DDD (NIELS) capacity with good spatial resolution would allow sensitivity to an impending accident and give important information in the case of an accident, allowing a more informed response. • Expectation is that special sensors adapted to this environment could survive form two weeks to month in-core, and this is already of interest to our utility. 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 1

FOS Sensors : PWRs Market Survey Nuclear Energy (PWR) Radiation Hard, Moderate Temperature (300°C

FOS Sensors : PWRs Market Survey Nuclear Energy (PWR) Radiation Hard, Moderate Temperature (300°C - 400°C) • Koeberg (ESKOM) • In-Core Monitoring of temperature, neutron flux (power) ESKOM Chief Nuclear Officer requested two phase proposal for online in -core Koeberg monitoring. Koeberg currently has 24 in -core tubes monitored monthly by a robotic insertion device. 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 2

FOS Sensors : PWRs (Flux profile) Fibres last to an integral neutron flux of

FOS Sensors : PWRs (Flux profile) Fibres last to an integral neutron flux of 1020 neutrons/cm 2. Expect lifetime in Koeberg is 10 days one month CYCLE BURNUP MW. d/t 150 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16723 17073 17350 17742 18190 17 Jun 2019 BORON ppm 1423. 99 1379. 63 1326. 31 1246. 5 1164. 74 1077. 49 991. 67 909. 33 831. 57 759. 06 688. 41 618. 34 547. 83 474. 36 388. 74 294. 73 194. 46 89. 64 15. 02 0 0 REL. POWER 1. 00 1. 00 0. 97 0. 93 0. 86 0. 76 FOS Sensors : Reactors FLUX 1 Fast (>0. 625 e. V) 2. 99 E+14 3. 00 E+14 3. 01 E+14 3. 02 E+14 3. 03 E+14 3. 04 E+14 3. 05 E+14 3. 06 E+14 3. 07 E+14 2. 95 E+14 2. 82 E+14 2. 59 E+14 2. 27 E+14 FLUX 2 Thermal 3. 63 E+13 3. 64 E+13 3. 66 E+13 3. 68 E+13 3. 70 E+13 3. 73 E+13 3. 76 E+13 3. 79 E+13 3. 83 E+13 3. 86 E+13 3. 90 E+13 3. 94 E+13 3. 99 E+13 4. 04 E+13 4. 09 E+13 4. 15 E+13 4. 20 E+13 4. 08 E+13 3. 95 E+13 3. 68 E+13 3. 26 E+13 3

FOS Sensors : PWRs (introduction mechanism of sensors) 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors :

FOS Sensors : PWRs (introduction mechanism of sensors) 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 4

FOS Sensors : HTGRs High Temperature gas Cooled Reactors PBMR – South AFRICA Pebble

FOS Sensors : HTGRs High Temperature gas Cooled Reactors PBMR – South AFRICA Pebble fuel Radiation Hard, High Temperature (850°C) The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor is a high temperature gas cooled reactor based on 15000 kernels of Si. C coated UO 2 particles in a spherical graphite matrix. The pebbles flow continuously through a helium cooled core. The project was cancelled for nontechnical reasons in 2010. 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 5

FOS Sensors : HTGRs http: //spectrum. ieee. org/energy/nucle ar/pebblebed-design-returns Nucl Instr & Meth in

FOS Sensors : HTGRs http: //spectrum. ieee. org/energy/nucle ar/pebblebed-design-returns Nucl Instr & Meth in Phys Res A 515 (2003) 745 Chief Technology Officer of the PBMR project (now a Professor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Pretoria) initiated R&D on the FOS Temperature sensor embedded in the graphite reflector as an indicator of the flow of pebbles. 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 6

FOS Sensors : HTGRs Nuclear Energy (AHTR) Radiation Hard, High Temperature (900°C) 17 Jun

FOS Sensors : HTGRs Nuclear Energy (AHTR) Radiation Hard, High Temperature (900°C) 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 7

FOS Sensors : HTGRs System Design Lead : Instrumentation and Controls 17 Jun 2019

FOS Sensors : HTGRs System Design Lead : Instrumentation and Controls 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 8

FOS Sensors for in-core nuclear reactor sensing Fibres last to an integral neutron flux

FOS Sensors for in-core nuclear reactor sensing Fibres last to an integral neutron flux of 1020 neutrons/cm 2 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 9

Fibre Optic Sensing : Radiation Dose 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 10

Fibre Optic Sensing : Radiation Dose 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 10

Fibre Optic Sensing : Radiation Dose 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 11

Fibre Optic Sensing : Radiation Dose 17 Jun 2019 FOS Sensors : Reactors 11