Forms Of Government Chapter 1 Section 2 Objectives

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Forms Of Government Chapter 1 Section 2

Forms Of Government Chapter 1 Section 2

Objectives n n Classify governments according to three sets of characteristics. Define systems of

Objectives n n Classify governments according to three sets of characteristics. Define systems of government based on who can participate. Identify different ways that power can be distributed, geographically, within a state. Describe a government by how power is distributed between the executive branch and legislative branch.

How to Classify a Government n n n No two governments are, or have

How to Classify a Government n n n No two governments are, or have ever been, exactly alike. Political scientists have developed many ways to classify and compare governments. The three most useful classifications are: n n 1. Who can participate in the government. 2. The geographic distribution of governmental power within the state. 3. The relationship between the legislative and executive branches of the government. We will look at two government styles today: n n Democracy Dictatorships

Who Can Participate n In a Democracy: n The supreme political authority rests with

Who Can Participate n In a Democracy: n The supreme political authority rests with the people. n n Abraham Lincoln labeled the American government in his Gettysburg Address: “government of the people, by the people, for the people…” There are multiple styles of democracy, we will examine two: n n Direct Democracy Representative Democracy

Direct Democracy n Direct democracy aka pure democracy n n The people participate in

Direct Democracy n Direct democracy aka pure democracy n n The people participate in every aspect of government life (especially policymaking). This works only in small locations where citizens can easily meet to deal with all of its government’s problems. n This is why direct democracy does not exist on a national level anywhere in the world today.

Representative Democracy n This is the form of democracy we are the most familiar

Representative Democracy n This is the form of democracy we are the most familiar with in America. n n A small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives, speaks for the will of the people. These representatives are held accountable to the people at elections n Very simply, representative democracy is a government by popular consent.

Dictatorships n These governments have no responsibility to their people. n Dictatorships are the

Dictatorships n These governments have no responsibility to their people. n Dictatorships are the oldest and most common form of government in the world. n There are two types of dictatorships: § Autocracy § A government in which a single person holds power. § Oligarchy § A government which the power to rule is held by small, self-appointed, elites.

Dictatorships throughout History n All dictatorships are authoritarian however most modern dictatorships have turned

Dictatorships throughout History n All dictatorships are authoritarian however most modern dictatorships have turned totalitarian: n n Meaning they exercise complete power over nearly every aspect of human life. Examples of Dictatorships: n n n Fascist Italy (1922 -43) Nazi Germany (1933 -45) USSR (1917 -Late 1980’s)

Dictatorships Today n Today’s dictatorships are less likely to be authoritarian. n They typically

Dictatorships Today n Today’s dictatorships are less likely to be authoritarian. n They typically have more than one ruler/group competing for control. n n Armies, religious leaders and industrialists typically compete for power. Most dictatorships today are militaristic. n The military typically holds most of the major posts throughout the government.

Distribution of Power n Every system of government distributes its power throughout multiple geographic

Distribution of Power n Every system of government distributes its power throughout multiple geographic locations. n Three forms of government division exist: n n n Unitary Government Federal Government Confederate Government

Unitary Government n Unitary governments are described as centralized governments. n n n All

Unitary Government n Unitary governments are described as centralized governments. n n n All powers are held by a single, central agency. The central government creates smaller localized governments as it is convenient. Most governments in the world today are unitary. n Britain’s parliament is a perfect example (we’ll discuss this later).

Federal Government n In a federal government, the powers are divided between central and

Federal Government n In a federal government, the powers are divided between central and local governments. n The US is a good example of a federal government: n n There are 50 state governments and thousands of local governments that divide their authority. Other countries with Federal Governments are: n Australia, Canada, Mexico, Switzerland around 20 others.

Confederate Government n A confederation is an alliance of independent states. n n The

Confederate Government n A confederation is an alliance of independent states. n n The confederate government is a central power, but can only act on issues that the members have assigned to it. The goal of a confederation is cooperation while keeping individual state authority. n The EU is the best example of a successful confederation in existence today.

One Final Classification n The final example of classification of governments is to analyze

One Final Classification n The final example of classification of governments is to analyze the relationship between the executive and legislative agencies of the government. n The two styles we will examine are: n n Presidential Governments Parliamentary Governments

Presidential Government n Presidential governments feature separation of powers between the executive and legislative

Presidential Government n Presidential governments feature separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches of government. n n The Chief Executive (President) is chosen separately from the legislative branch and has its own specific power. The US is the leading model of presidential governments, as it created the form.

Parliamentary Government n In a parliamentary government, the executive branch is the Prime Minister/Premier

Parliamentary Government n In a parliamentary government, the executive branch is the Prime Minister/Premier + Cabinet. n n The PM and Cabinet are also members of parliament (the legislative branch). The difference between the two systems comes through its elections.

Parliamentary Elections 1. 2. 3. The people vote in a general election and elect

Parliamentary Elections 1. 2. 3. The people vote in a general election and elect legislators. The party with the most control of Parliament (or a majority coalition) selects who the PM is. The PM, with the consent of Parliament selects their cabinet members.

Differences n What differences are there between the parliamentary system of government and a

Differences n What differences are there between the parliamentary system of government and a presidential system?