- Slides: 43
FORMATION OF THE CANADIAN FEDERATION
Canadian Confederation • The two-party system: • • Liberals Conservatives – Under a unified Canada different groups had Canada West • Name: Clear Grit • Name: Conservative Party different agendas, therefore two. Johnparties • Leader: George Brown • Leader: A. Macdonald were • Represented: Majority • Represented: Minority • created. Members: Mainly former Reformers • Members: Former Tories and moderate reformers. Protestant, Anglophone with ties to Britain. In Canada East • Name: Parti Rouge • Leader: Antoine-Aimé Dorion • Represented: Minority • Members: Former radical Reformers and intellectuals, nationalists and anti-clericals (separate church and state). • Canada East • Name: Parti Bleu • Leader: George-Étienne Cartier • Represented: Majority • Montreal bourgeoisie Reformers. Business people. Had support of the clergy.
Canadian Confederation • Ministerial instability: – To have full victory and control of the government leaders needed to have a double-majority (most seats in Canada East and West). – Instability led to minority governments – fewer than 50% seats. Equalled more compromise. – Between 1854 -1864 there were more than 10 minority governments = very hard to manage colony affairs.
Canadian Confederation • Proportional representation: – Representatives based on population of a region. Good for West, bad for East.
Canadian Confederation • The Confederation Project: – Changes in the economy, including industrialization and development of the railway created a reevaluation of the British colonies. A union was considered. – Conflicts in the US and interest in territories in the North from America. – Reciprocity Treaty not renewed, forced colonies to look inward. – Great coalition: John A Macdonald & George Brown – convince Britain and Maritimes.
Canadian Confederation • Reactions: – Newfoundland/PEI withdrew from initial negotiations. – Nova Scotia/New Brunswick – did not want to assume debt for building projects, though later agreed if railway connected the provinces. – United Canada – concerns over language and loss of culture.
Canadian Confederation • Constitutional Negotiations: – Federalism: shared government – provincial and federal. Conferences Results Charlottetown, September 1864 • Agreement on idea of federal union. Quebec, October 1864 • • Accept Federalism Accept 72 Resolutions – dividing of power, proportional representation, railway construction. London, December 1866 • • Draft BNA Act based on 72 resolutions. Passed by British Government.
Canadian Confederation • The BNA Act 1867: – Finalized the union of British colonies. – Sovereign state of British Commonwealth. – Canada managed its own finances and internal affairs, but not its foreign policy or army. – Canada became a Constitutional Monarchy: official head of state is a monarch, with power controlled by a constitution.
Canadian Confederation Federal Provincial Shared • Aboriginal Affairs • Commerce • Defence and Armed Forces • Criminal Law • Currency/Banking • Navigation • Postal Services • Power to disallow Provincial Act • Taxes • • • Justice Civil Law (marriage) Education Municipalities Natural Resources/Raw Materials • Roads and Public Works • Health • • Jurisdiction: Agriculture Economic Development Immigration Fisheries Prisons and Justice Transportation/Commu nications • Public Works
Canadian Confederation • Canada, a sovereign country? – A country is a self-governing political entity. – Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make laws. – So, after confederation/BNA Act, was Canada a sovereign nation?
• Why did Confederation occur? – Internal factors pages 75 -77. – External factors pages 78 & 85. Internal External Classwork: T-Chart
Industrialization • International context & Industrialization: – Between 1846 -1849 protectionism was abandoned, free trade was adopted. – Great Britain began the process of industrialization – change by technical innovation. – Reciprocity Treaty (1854) – free trade agreement signed by US and United Canada, ended 12 years later (1866, before confederation).
Industrialization • Progress through Exploitation - 1 st Phase (1850 -1867): – British economic abandonment of its colonies led to a shift to more consumer friendly goods – timber/wheat to shoes/clothes/textiles. – Wealthy merchants bought the means of production (items needed to produce goods: machinery, factories, tools). – A small class controlled wealth, production tools and groups of workers. Profits soared.
Industrialization • How to move a million shoes: – Hydraulic power (watermills, millstones, steam engine) was the power of the 19 th C. – Railway became essential – to move raw materials, transport manufactured goods, yearround access, helped open new territories, railway use meant advances were needed in that field (whole new sector). – Grand Trunk Railway Company: initial investors, later backed by the govt.
Industrialization • Movement of People: – In order to build railway and goods, a huge workforce was needed. – Immigration increased – though population in Canada E & W stayed constant? – French Canadiens moved south to Vermont, N. H – government + Church worked together to open new areas to explore in Quebec. – Rural Exodus + Urbanization = Industrialize
Industrialization • The New Classes: – Upper Class: entrepreneurs, politicians. • Entrepreneurs – build factories, used workers, but did not share profits. – Middle Class: had capital and the means of production. – Lower Class: workers, including immigrants. • Worked long hours (60 hour weeks – to more than 72 hours). Many children worked as well.
• What does industrialization looked like: Industrialization
What does industrialization looks like: Industrialization
Industrialization • Class Assignment: – Choose the perspective of a factory worker, upper/lower class member. – Write a letter and response from one time period to another describing what life is like for each. – Idea – write a letter, than answer another’s letter
The Canadian Federation • Topics for Discussion (1867 -1929): – 2 nd Phases of Industrialization. – Territorial Expansion. – The Indian Act/Residential Schools. – The Metis Uprising. – National Policy. – The Railway, Immigration and Expansion.
The Canadian Federation • 2 nd Phase Industrialization: – New industry related to natural resources (hydroelectricity, aluminum, pulp/paper), in addition to American investment – led to railway expansion/enlarging factories. – There was the issues of territorial expansion – how to expand favour domestic markets?
The Canadian Federation • Territorial Expansion/Political Problems: – Goal=expand borders to the West. But why? 1. Offer Canadians new areas to settle. 2. Create a larger economic base. 3. Protect west from American occupation. – HBC sold large territory to Canada for $1. 5 million.
The Canadian Federation Mac. Donald’s National Policy: • Increase tariffs to protect Canadian goods. • Extend Railway. • Increase population – particularly Europe (why? )
The Canadian Federation Province or Territory Joined Confederation Alberta 1905 British Columbia 1871 Manitoba 1870 New Brunswick 1867 Newfoundland 1949 Northwest Territories 1870 Nova Scotia 1867 Nunavut 1999 Ontario 1867 Prince Edward Island 1873 Quebec 1867 Saskatchewan 1905 Yukon 1898
The Canadian Federation • What is the problem with western expansion and settling of territory? – The Metis were already living on the land. – The Bison were hunted almost to extinction. – Aboriginal placed on reserves/Indian Act. • Aboriginals relegated to ‘minor’ status. – Riel & Metis make demands and start a rebellion (similar to that of 1837). – Riel defeated at Batoche (SK).
North West Rebellion • 1885 – Another rebellion in the west (Sask. / Manitoba) – Metis/Natives feel disenfranchised and ignored by Federal gov’t, want title to their land for treaties to be honoured • - surveyors come – feels like the gov’t is going to claim land for itself, railroad is bringing more settlers competitors for land • - Louis Riel (Metis leader of previous rebellion) returns to lead the cause – sends many official grievance letters to the gov’t – no reply = armed rebellion, was put down, Riel hanged
Residential Schools – Land taken – Aboriginals placed on reserves – in order to be given land as an individual you needed to become a subject of the crown – which would thereby relegate you as a minor – you needed to fit the ‘profile’ of a crown subject (based on Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of Indian Tribes in this Province, and to Amend the Laws Relating to Indians (1857) http: //caid. ca/Gra. Civ. Act 1857. pdf) which was impossible to follow – thereby justifying the creation of and the attendance in a residential school for young children. – http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=s_V 4 d 7 s. Xoq. U
Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of Indian Tribes in this Province, and to Amend the Laws Relating to Indians (1857).
Residential Schools • Residential Schools – They were breeding grounds for potentially fatal diseases like smallpox and tuberculosis. – Many children were physically, emotionally and/or sexually abused – Students were not allowed to practice Aboriginal customs or speak Aboriginal languages – they had to become Christians – They were the source of great animosity between the government and Aboriginal parents (children were forced to attend)
– They were poorly equipped to properly clothe students, particularly during the winter months. – They were source of dangerous fires often deliberately set by abused children. – The work was physically demanding and harsh on the students. – Teachers were often so ill equipped that they could not teach students much beyond completely alien religious ideologies.
Report on Native Residential Schools – Mini Assignment. Due: Tuesday, April 22 nd – Do online research on Native residential schools – Type a 1 -2 page (double-spaced) report which answers one of the following: – Use at least 3 quotes from valid websites to backup your facts. – 1) What went wrong with Native Residential Schools? Explain. Include a quote from a survivor. – 2) In your opinion, has enough been done to compensate those who were impacted by residential schools? Why/why not? Include a quote from a recent news article.
Economic Expansion National Policy Included (1879): • Development of Railway • Promotion of Immigration • Settlement of the West
Economic Expansion • Laurier 1896: – National Policy began to have a beneficial effect. – Focus on immigration, free passage, free land, freedom of religion. – Agriculture boomed, Canada became a world leading producer of wheat.
Economic Expansion • Industrial Development: – Immigration supplied workers to help industrialization, while tariffs protected their jobs. – Goods such as iron, sugar, textiles were in high demand. – Natural resources began to be exploited. – New regions were explored and developed.
Economic Expansion • Social Reform: – Economy prospered, working and living conditions for many suffered. – Not all immigrants became farmers, many settled in cities, which lacked the infrastructure. – Royal Commission of Inquiry set up in 1886.
Economic Expansion • Unionization: – Response to poor working conditions. – 1872 unions became legal, however striking was illegal. – Government supported business more than workers. – Union movement did not gain ground until 20 th century with the success of Knights of Labor.
Classwork • In perspective, page 106 #1 -4 – If not done – do as homework
World War I • Women of War: – With many young working men fighting, women stepped into the role of workers in factories. – Women were paid less. – Started to demand equal economic & political rights, which they received in 1917.
World War I • Conscription: – (1917) threatened French-English relations, who did not agree with Canada participating in British wars. They rejected the idea and rioted in 1918. Of the 40, 000 conscripted, half did not report. This led to further demand for French autonomy. – http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ugeq 0 PIju. SQ
World War I: Trench Warfare