Formal concept analysis framework as a tool that

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Formal concept analysis framework as a tool that broaden QCA technique: analyzing democratic development

Formal concept analysis framework as a tool that broaden QCA technique: analyzing democratic development Dmitry Zaytsev, Ass. Prof. , Department of Public Policy, Higher School of Economics

FCA opportunities broaden QCA Ø Putting forward Hypothesis – Outcome definition – Model Building

FCA opportunities broaden QCA Ø Putting forward Hypothesis – Outcome definition – Model Building Ø Coding / Calibration Ø Minimizations Ø Visualization Ø Cross-case interpretation

Putting forward Hypothesis • 2 < 22 > Violation of check and balances system

Putting forward Hypothesis • 2 < 22 > Violation of check and balances system + Restriction of civil liberties ==> Defects of political competition; • 5 < 19 > Restriction on independence of media + Restriction of civil liberties + Defects of political competition ==> Violation of freedom of association;

Coding / Calibration Figure 3. Lattice on Formal institutions / personalizm (BTI index)* *P

Coding / Calibration Figure 3. Lattice on Formal institutions / personalizm (BTI index)* *P – Performance of democratic institutions, C - Commitment to democratic institutions

Minimization reduce 45 parameters of democratic development to 7: • Weakness of formal institutions/personalizm

Minimization reduce 45 parameters of democratic development to 7: • Weakness of formal institutions/personalizm • Violation of freedom of association • Violation of check and balances system • Restriction of civil liberties • Defects of feedback mechanism • Governmental interventions in economy • Military - fourth power 1 < 7 > FI < 0, 4 + CL < 0, 4 DI < 0, 4,

Visualization № 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Visualization № 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Countries/ Indicators Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Moldova Russia Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan FI 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 CL 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 DI 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

1 < 6 > FI =[100%]=> < 6 > CL; 2 < 7 >

1 < 6 > FI =[100%]=> < 6 > CL; 2 < 7 > CL =[86%]=> < 6 > DI; 3 < 7 > CL =[86%]=> < 6 > FI; 4 < 6 > CL DI =[83%]=> < 5 > FI;

Cross-case interpretation Figure 6 suggest a particular order in which parameters disintegrate with the

Cross-case interpretation Figure 6 suggest a particular order in which parameters disintegrate with the decline of democracy 1. Decline Functioning of Government and Electoral Process 2. Regress in Associational and Organizational Rights, Political Pluralism and Participation, and Rule of Law 3. The last to be restricted are Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights and Freedom of Expression and Beliefs.

The Challenges of Using FCA • • • Can’t test causality hypothesis Multiplying conversions

The Challenges of Using FCA • • • Can’t test causality hypothesis Multiplying conversions Time & Dynamics Searching method Do methods for methods