For Crab Pulsar 6 Monogenerator For Crab Pulsar

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中子星的磁层 For Crab Pulsar: 6

中子星的磁层 For Crab Pulsar: 6

Mono-generator 地球: 太阳: For Crab Pulsar:

Mono-generator 地球: 太阳: For Crab Pulsar:

粒子的加速和辐射区在哪? 1. Gap:inner gap & outer gap 2. Space Charge Limited Flow: Slot gap

粒子的加速和辐射区在哪? 1. Gap:inner gap & outer gap 2. Space Charge Limited Flow: Slot gap 3. Annular gap 8

Outer gap model polar cap model 9

Outer gap model polar cap model 9

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漂移子脉冲 Backer (1973)

漂移子脉冲 Backer (1973)

Different gap heights: mode changing Rankin, 1986 12/2/2020 Zhang, Qiao, Lin, Han, 1997, Ap.

Different gap heights: mode changing Rankin, 1986 12/2/2020 Zhang, Qiao, Lin, Han, 1997, Ap. J.

Mode changing Zhang, Qiao, Lin, Han, 1997 12/2/2020 17

Mode changing Zhang, Qiao, Lin, Han, 1997 12/2/2020 17

环区与核区放电点反向漂移 Qiao, Lee, Wang, Xu, Han 2004 a, Ap. JL 18

环区与核区放电点反向漂移 Qiao, Lee, Wang, Xu, Han 2004 a, Ap. JL 18

The Annular Gap The radio and gamma-ray can be understood by annular gap at

The Annular Gap The radio and gamma-ray can be understood by annular gap at same time. Qiao, Lee, Wang, Xu, Han 2004 a, Ap. JL 19

Drifting sub-pulses PULSE LONGITUDE Drifting subpulses Taylor et al. (1975) Backer (1973) 20

Drifting sub-pulses PULSE LONGITUDE Drifting subpulses Taylor et al. (1975) Backer (1973) 20

Bi-drifting: fitting Mclaughlin 2003, astr-ph/0310454 Qiao, Lee, Zhang, Xu, Wang, 2004 b, Ap. JL

Bi-drifting: fitting Mclaughlin 2003, astr-ph/0310454 Qiao, Lee, Zhang, Xu, Wang, 2004 b, Ap. JL

Core and conal emission beams Rankin, 1983, Ap. J, 274, 333 Manchester, R. N.

Core and conal emission beams Rankin, 1983, Ap. J, 274, 333 Manchester, R. N. 1995 J. Astroph. Astr. 16, 107 Core emission ! How to produce it? 22

Emission beams in RS model Emission beams Hollow cone only! Ruderman & Sutherland, 1975

Emission beams in RS model Emission beams Hollow cone only! Ruderman & Sutherland, 1975 Rankin, 1983, Ap. J, 274, 333 Low freq: wide beam! 23

Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model Qiao, 1992 Qiao & Lin, 1998, AA; Qiao, Lin,

Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model Qiao, 1992 Qiao & Lin, 1998, AA; Qiao, Lin, Zhang, & Han, 2001, AA 24

Obs. ICS model ? RS model The beaming frequency variation! Qiao, Liu, Zhang, &

Obs. ICS model ? RS model The beaming frequency variation! Qiao, Liu, Zhang, & Han, 2001, AA 25 Lyne & Manchester (1988) & Sieber et al. (1975), Kramer, (1994)

PSR B 2111+46: Multi-bands Obs. Pulse profiles: Gaussian fitting 12/2/2020 Zhang, Qiao, Han, Lee,

PSR B 2111+46: Multi-bands Obs. Pulse profiles: Gaussian fitting 12/2/2020 Zhang, Qiao, Han, Lee, Wang , AA, 2007 26

PSR B 2111+46: Multi-bands Obs. Light curves Different components of same frequency come from

PSR B 2111+46: Multi-bands Obs. Light curves Different components of same frequency come from different altitudes. Zhang, Qiao, Han, Lee, Wang , AA, 2007 12/2/2020

Spark Model Polar cap region Gil & Sendyk, 2000

Spark Model Polar cap region Gil & Sendyk, 2000

Why the AG plays a important role? Theory: ●outer gap <=> annular Observations: ●

Why the AG plays a important role? Theory: ●outer gap <=> annular Observations: ● very wide emission beams ● Bi-drifting sub-pulses… Qiao, Lee, Zhang, Wang, Xu, 2007, Ch. JAA Du, Han, Qiao, Chou, 2010, Ap. J.

Free flow: slot gap & Annular gap Qiao, Lee, Zhang, Wang, Xu, 2007, Ch.

Free flow: slot gap & Annular gap Qiao, Lee, Zhang, Wang, Xu, 2007, Ch. JAA 35

The annular gap Qiao, Lee, Zhang, Wang, Xu, 2007, Ch. JAA the acceleration effect

The annular gap Qiao, Lee, Zhang, Wang, Xu, 2007, Ch. JAA the acceleration effect of AG is much higher efficiency! 36

Mono-generator 地球: 太阳: For Crab Pulsar:

Mono-generator 地球: 太阳: For Crab Pulsar:

Position angle sweep fit with Rotation Vector Model Inclination Angle Viewing Angle z a

Position angle sweep fit with Rotation Vector Model Inclination Angle Viewing Angle z a Double-pole origin W z ~157 o a MP IP Lyne & Manchester 1988 Wang et al. 2006 Pole B (IP) m Pole A (MP) Line of Sight 42

射电+伽玛==》辐射区域 Radio Gamma-ray Thompson et al. 1992 Wang. Qiao, Xu, Liu, 2006, MN From

射电+伽玛==》辐射区域 Radio Gamma-ray Thompson et al. 1992 Wang. Qiao, Xu, Liu, 2006, MN From observation, the radiation location can be determined uniquely for this star. 43

偏振位置角的突跳 Xu, Qiao & Han, 1997, AA 45

偏振位置角的突跳 Xu, Qiao & Han, 1997, AA 45

FERMI/LAT FERMI Observatory: Launch date: 11 June 2008 Two instruments: GBM: 8 ke. V

FERMI/LAT FERMI Observatory: Launch date: 11 June 2008 Two instruments: GBM: 8 ke. V – 40 Me. V GRBs, transient sources LAT: main telescope 20 Me. V to > 300 Ge. V Great improvements: 8000 cm 2 at 1 Ge. V 0. 8 o at 1 Ge. V Large FOV cover all sky in two orbits 3 hr 46

Where we are… Pulses at 1/10 th true rate 47

Where we are… Pulses at 1/10 th true rate 47

Millisecond pulsars: pulse profiles in the Annular gap Du, Qiao, Han, Lee, Xu 2010,

Millisecond pulsars: pulse profiles in the Annular gap Du, Qiao, Han, Lee, Xu 2010, MN

Modeled radio and Gamma-ray light curves for PSR J 0034 -0534 Gamma-ray Obs. Radio

Modeled radio and Gamma-ray light curves for PSR J 0034 -0534 Gamma-ray Obs. Radio Obs. Du, Qiao, Chen 2012

Vela: pulse profiles in the Annular gap Du et. Han, Du, al. 2010 Qiao,

Vela: pulse profiles in the Annular gap Du et. Han, Du, al. 2010 Qiao, Chou, 2011, Ap. J.

Crab: pulse profiles in the Annular gap Du, Qiao, Wang, 2012, Ap. J.

Crab: pulse profiles in the Annular gap Du, Qiao, Wang, 2012, Ap. J.

WIDE RADIO BEAMS FROM γ -RAY PULSARS Ravi, Manchester & Hobbs, 2010 G-Gamma-ray R-radio

WIDE RADIO BEAMS FROM γ -RAY PULSARS Ravi, Manchester & Hobbs, 2010 G-Gamma-ray R-radio Θc-common Θg-gamma Θr-radio

Thank you !

Thank you !

Primary polar current and the return current How can we Get this? Arons, 2007

Primary polar current and the return current How can we Get this? Arons, 2007 56