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Critical Literacy MICHAEL GLASS & CAROLYN MCKANNA C&T 820
What is Critical Literacy? �Critical literacy is a method of instruction that “encourages readers to adopt a questioning stance and to work toward changing themselves and their worlds” (Mc. Daniel, 472).
What is Critical Literacy? �“It could also be framed as constructivism, since it draws from students' experiences and contributions in order to direct research, generate discussions, and even link current lessons to newer ones” (Alejandra)
Ways to teach Critical Literacy �Paying attention to connections Audit Trail �Using authentic texts No Dick and Jane! �Questioning motives and sources Who is benefitting?
Vazquez (2004) �Curricular Audit Trail Facilitates connections � Ex: Saving the rainforest & the local economy Gives the power to the students � They create the curriculum � Experience working for change �What were your reactions to this strategy? Do you think it would be accepted in most schools?
Mc. Daniel (2004) �Teachers must adopt the philosophy of critical literacy �Freire Teachers learn and learners teach � “speak with, not for” � Providing skills that allow student to take control of his/her life �Importance of true-to-life material If it’s unpleasant, it’s taboo! No Buddha
Siddhartha (Buddha) was sheltered from experiencing pain and suffering. The king (Buddha’s father) surrounded the palace with a triple enclosure and guard and proclaimed that the use of the words death and grief were forbidden. Siddhartha was kept amused and entertained for some time by this privileged life behind the palace walls until one day his divine vocation awoke in him, and he decided to visit the nearby town. The king called for everything to be swept and decorated, and any ugly or sad sight to be removed.
Park (2011) �“Critical literacy often refers to the political dimension operating within literacy practices…” (25). �Use of “critical incidents” in news articles Authentic Allows for many interpretations Highlights a variety of perspectives
Problems with Implementation �Morgan (1997) says, “It would be naïve to expect that the state would endorse a pedagogy which proclaims its intention to undermine the status quo and the legitimacy of the present practice of government” (as cited in Mc. Daniel, 2004, p. 475).
�“In China, nearly all Chinese students believe that teachers and textbooks are always right which represents the authority. Therefore, teachers may confront a lot of difficulties to stimulate students’ critical thoughts. ” (Wanlu) �“…the challenges of enacting critical literacy in a teaching context like China would be [that]… lesson plans are designed only for teachers to follow. They are guidelines that teachers should abide with and should not “change randomly. ” (Junfu)
Problems with Implementation � Park mentions problems with lower level students and that “it is difficult to trust students enough to follow their lead” (46). � “Some challenges might be having the time as well as the freedom to have the students' inquiries lead the curriculum, as opposed to the district provided curriculum and pacing guides. ” (Sabrina) � “… when we read, we bring in our own experiences to help with critical literacy. So, each student's interpretation will be different. It would be difficult as a teacher to accommodate such a large variability. I am not saying that it is impossible, but the tasks and types of activities and the method of assessment should be very flexible to allow for open interpretation from each student. ” (Breanna)
When is it appropriate to implement? A couple of statements from Park: � “This problem [of insufficient language skills] can be partially solved by postponing critical engagement with the text until there has been sufficient instruction about linguistic forms and expressions” (45). � “Teachers should not ignore critical literacy until forms and contents that are considered more basic are learned” (47). �Are these statements conflicting? When can critical literacy be introduced?
Examining a Controversial Issue: We will… �Introduce some vocabulary related to critical viewing and the legalization of marijuana. �Watch and discuss a video about the topic. �Read and discuss articles both for and against the legalization of marijuana. �Create an advertisement to show different positions.
Cartoon �While you watch… Identify one symbol used. Identify one argument for or against the legalization of marijuana. �http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=um. A 08 Iwcu. Wo
News Articles �While you read… Is the writer for or against the issue? Identify any reasons for their position. Do you agree with this position? What is the writer’s relationship to the issue? Is there any bias present?
Let your voice be heard! �In your groups, you will be creating an advertisement (ad) presenting your article’s position on the legalization of marijuana. �This ad will be approximately one minute in length. �You will need to include: At least two of the arguments specific to your article. Props and visuals to help communicate the message. �Keep in mind the strong effect that symbols can have!
Examples of Ads �http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ow. Gyk. Vbfg. UE �https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=K-j. SM 9 p. Pw. JY
CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Collaboration With Peers Almost always listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries to keep people working well together. Usually listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Does not cause "waves" in the group. Often listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group but sometimes is not a good team member. Rarely listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Often is not a good team member. Content Ad represents the position of the article by using more than one specific arguments present in the article. Ad represents the position of the article but uses only one argument present in the article. Ad represents the general position of the article (pro or con), but does not include specific arguments. Ad does not represent the position of the article. Props Student uses several props/visuals that show considerable work/creativity and which make the advertisement better. Student uses 1 prop/visual that shows considerable work/creativity and which make the advertisement better. Student uses 1 prop/visual which makes the advertisement better. The student uses no props OR the props chosen detract from the presentation. Evaluates Peers Fills out peer evaluation completely and always gives scores based on the presentation rather than other factors (e. g. , person is a close friend). Fills out almost all of the peer evaluation and always gives scores based on the presentation rather than other factors (e. g. , person is a close friend). Fills out most of the peer evaluation but scoring appears to be biased.