Finite and Non-Finite Verbs
Finite Verbs • A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence. • A sentence does not make sense without a finite verb. • A finite verb gives meaning to a sentence.
Finite verbs must agree with the number and person of its subject. • Example: I love food. The “I” agrees with the word “love. ” Kevin loves food. The word “Kevin” agrees with the word “loves. ”
• If the tense of the sentence changes, then the form of the verb also changes. Such a verb is a finite verb. Example: • He works at the photo shop. (Simple present tense) • He worked at the photo shop. (Simple past tense)
Non Finite Verbs • A non-finite verb (sometimes called a verbal) is any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; that is, they cannot serve as the root of an independent clause.
Non-finite verbs are not bound by tense, person or number of the subject. Finite Non-finite • Richie hates working. • My Friends hated working. Finite Non-finite
A sentence will make sense without the non-finite verb. • Example: We must go shopping now. We must go now.
Three types of non-finite 1. Infinitive: to + verb • E. g. John is going to wait outside. 2. Participle verb: does the work of both verb and adjective- verbal adjective. • E. g. . Look at the burning candles. 3. Gerund: acts as a verb and noun- verbal noun. E. g. Painting is my hobby.
The finite verbs are in bold in the following sentences, and the non-finite verbs are underlined: • Verbs appear in almost all sentences. • This sentence is illustrating finite and nonfinite verbs. • The dog will have to be trained well. • Tom promises to try to do the work.
Tense Finite or Non-finite? David plays the piano Present Finite My sister spoke French on holiday Past Finite It took courage to continue NONE -- the verb has the after the accident infinitive form Non-finite Leaving home can be very traumatic NONE -- the verb has the ing form Non-finite Leave immediately when you are asked to do so NONE -- the verb has the ed form Non-finite