- Slides: 26
Final Review Chapters 1 -11
Chapter 1: Nutrients • Functions of nutrients • 5 Factors that influence food choices: – Sensory (flavors/taste/texture), Cognitive (food habits, advertising, beliefs), Genetics, Environmental (economics, lifestyle, availability, cultural influences, religion), Health status • Nutrient – Essential vs. Non-essential nutrient?
Chapter 1: Nutrients • 6 classes of nutrients: carbs, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water – Macronutrient (carbs, proteins, lipids, water) or micronutrient (vitamins, minerals, water)? • Energy in Food – We use calorie as a general term for energy, and kcal as a specific measurement or unit of that energy.
Chapter 1: Nutrients • Common Study Designs used in Nutrition Research? 1. Animal: effects of nutrients on animals 2. Cell culture: effects of nutrients on cells 3. Epidemiological: study of disease/death rates in population to identify factors that may be related to cause of disease • Correlation is not always causation 4. Case Control: those with disease vs. those without disease 5. Clinical/Intervention: experimental vs. control groups (controlled diet, nutrient supplement, etc. )
Chapter 2: Nutrition Guidelines • Main idea: how to access, read, interpret, and apply nutrition guidelines – Tools: Guidelines for Americans, 2010 and My Plate (from USDA) • What are the tools? What are their main goals? – Social-ecological model: model that describes which factors and elements of society affect people’s own choices about food/exercise
Chapter 2: Nutrition Guidelines • DRI = Dietary Reference Intakes – Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 50% – Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 97 -98% – Adequate Intake (AI): when EAR/RDA is n/a – Tolerable Upper Intake Level: max level of nutrient intake you can take without harmful effects.
Chapter 2: Nutrition Guidelines • Food labels – FDA (all foods) vs. USDA (poultry/meat) – 1990 NLEA: name of food, net weight, name/address of food company, list ingredients, nutrition info (nutrition facts panel) • Nutrient Claims on food and dietary supplements: 1. Nutrient content claims (fat free really means <0. 5 g of fat per serving) 2. Health claim 3. Structure/function claim
Ch 3: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements • Functional foods: a food that may provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition (ex. phytochemicals, bacteria, fiber, etc. ). – Foods can be enhanced with functional ingredients during processing. – Phytochemicals: plant chemicals; act as antioxidants
Ch 3: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements • Food Additives: direct (added intentionally) vs. indirect (added unintentionally) – Regulation by FDA: Food, Color, GRAS, Priorsanctioned substances • Dietary/herbal supplements: products that contain a dietary ingredient – Regulation: supplement approval by FDA is NOT required • Which one needs FDA approval?
Ch 3: Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements • Fad diets most often eventually fail because they do not work. • The few that prove effective and have a scientific basis become integrated into conventional nutrition and diet therapy.
Ch 4: The Human Body – From Food to Fuel • Peristalsis vs. Segmentation • Organization – Parts (mouth anus) • Mouth, esophagus, stomach (digestion, HCl, pepsin), small intestine (digestion, absorption), large intestine (digestion of fiber, absorption), rectum – Accessory organs • Salivary glands (salivary amylase, lingual lipase), liver (bile), gallbladder (stores bile), and pancreas (bicarbonate, insulin, glucagon, digestive enzymes) • High fiber diet is beneficial for which GI disorder?
Ch 5: Carbohydrates • Main carbohydrate sources: Plants • 2 Main Types: – Simple (sugars): 1 -2 sugar molecules – Complex (starches and fibers): 3 or more sugar molecules. • Storage form: Glycogen vs. Starch
Ch 5: Carbohydrates • Forms of diabetes mellitus: – Type 1: lack of insulin production – Type 2: cells are resistant to insulin – Gestational diabetes: occurs during pregnancy • Glycemic Index: measures effect of food on blood glucose levels • Describe the relationship between blood sugar and glucagon/insulin. • What is the difference between Nutritive vs. Nonnutritive sweeteners?
Ch 6: Lipids • Storage form: Triglycerides • Saturation: – Saturated (all single bonds) vs. Unsaturated (1 or more double bonds) – Fats with more double bonds are generally more liquidy. • How is Trans fat made?
Ch. 6 Lipids • Apple/visceral vs. Pear/subcutaneous shape • To travel in your blood stream, lipids are packaged into lipoprotein carriers: – Chylomicron (releases TG) VLDL (TG) IDL returns to liver and converted to LDL (delivers cholesterol) Liver – HDL (picks up cholesterol) • Which chronic diseases are related to intake of saturated fat and trans fat?
Ch 7. Proteins • Made up of: Amino Acids • Protein Synthesis: (Fig 7. 9) – When cells make proteins, they use AA from Amino Acid pool and dietary proteins. • Cells in your body constantly build and breakdown proteins Protein turnover (“protein recycling”) – Proteins can also be precursors of non-protein molecules (DNA/RNA/NT) – Breakdown of amino acids Urea Urine Kidney
Ch. 7 Proteins • What are some basic functions of body proteins? • Complete proteins vs. incomplete proteins • Vegan vs. Vegetarian – Diet and Lifestyle vs. Diet • What are factors that increase our need for more dietary proteins?
Ch. 8 Energy Balance and Weight Management • Correct order of body’s energy usage: – Carbs Fat Proteins • Define the following: hunger, satiation, satiety, appetite • _______ of American children are overweight/obese.
Ch. 8 Energy Balance and Weight Management • Know how to calculate your BMI • BMI – Be able to interpret BMI to underweight/normal/overweight/obese – Tools to measure potential health risks associated to body fat vs. total body fat • Internal vs. External factors that influence our food/energy intake
Ch. 9 Vitamins • Enrichment vs. Fortification • Vitamins – organic, not an energy source, needed in small amounts • Fat-soluble vs. water-soluble – Vitamins A/D/E/K vs. B-vitamins, vitamin C – Food preparation and vitamin content – General functions/deficiencies/toxicities • Topics: Homocysteine
Ch. 9 Vitamins • Example of the level of detail: 1. Vitamin A/Beta-carotene: • Function: Vision, Immune System, Cell development • Toxicity: Teratogen 2. Thiamin/B 1 • Function: Energy metabolism • Deficiency: Beriberi • Toxicity: None
Ch. 10 Water and Minerals • Thirst as source of body’s hydration • Water 1. Excretion: insensible water losses (evaporation from lungs and diffusion through skin), urine, illness • External factors that contribute to water losses: low humidity, high altitude, high protein/salt foods 2. Water balance: hormonal effects (ADH/Aldosterone water reabsorption) + thirst
Ch. 10 Water and Minerals • Minerals: inorganic, micronutrients • Minerals – General functions • Topic: Thyroid metabolism
Ch. 11 Sports Nutrition • Energy Systems: 1. ATP-CP: anaerobic, fuel 3 -15 sec, quick source of ATP from creatine phosphate 2. Lactic acid: anaerobic, glucose ATP + lactic acid; muscle fatigue 3. Oxygen: aerobic, endurance stage, breakdown of carb + fat for energy in mitochondria • Slow-twitch fibers (low-intensity/marathon) vs. Fast-twitch fibers (high intensity/sprint)
Ch. 11 Sports Nutrition • Carbohydrate loading (beneficial if aerobic activity lasts less than 60 -90 min) • Carbohydrate Intake and Exercise – Pre-exercise meals should consist primarily of carbohydrates (small portions of easily digestible carbs)/During (Sports drinks with carbs, salt/minerals)/After (carbs + protein) – Fat as major fuel source for endurance/aerobic activities – Proteins intake after exercise to replenish glycogen more efficiently. • Muscles and strength are built with exercise, not high protein diet diuresis (loss of body water dehydration + mineral losses)
Ch. 11 Sports Nutrition • Table 11. 10 Types of Ergogenic Aids: – Nutritional (supplement), Physiological (blood doping: increasing RBC to improve aerobic capacity), Psychological (pep talk/music), Biomechanical (body suits in swimming), Pharmacological (hormones)