- Slides: 25
FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA Navies 2011
Causes � F. P. V. is caused by a DNA virus of the family Parvoviridae, which is closely related antigenetically to the canine parvovirus (CPV), type 2 and mink enteritisvirus
Con’t F. P. V. infects and destroys actively dividing cells in bone marrow, lymphoid tissues, intestinal epithelium, and –in very young animals- cerebellum and retina § OFTEN FATAL DISEASE § NON-ENVELOPED, SINGLE STRAND DNA VIRUS THAT HAS AN ESTABLISHED TROPISM FOR CELLS UNDERGOING MITOSIS IN THE TISSUE OF § NEONATAL BRAIN § BONE MARROW § LYMPHOID AND INTESTINAL LYMPHOID TISSUE �
History Twenty five years ago, F. P. V. was an unknown disease The virus that causes feline leukemia was 1 st identified in 1964 Feline panleukopenia (FP) has also been known as feline distemper, infectious enteritis, cat fever (not cat scratch fever), and other names FPV is caused by a virus and is present wherever cats are congregated, especially catteries, breeding facilities, shelters and feral populations.
Con’t � � � Young, ill, immunodeficient and unvaccinated cats are most susceptible Older outdoor cats have usually been exposed and tend to resist infection Incubation period is usually 4 -5 days
Signalment � � Less than a year old are the ones who are usually affected Not sex specific Cats that live in a multi-cat household and cats that are allowed to roam outdoors are at greater risk of contracting the disease A serious and contagious viral disease that affects cats, raccoons, and minks
SIGNALMENT � � � ANY CAT OF ANY AGE THAT IS UNVACCINATED, WILD, OR IN SHELTERS ARE MOST AT RISK VIRUS INFECTS MORE CATS IN THE SUMMER TIME SEEN MORE IN COUNTRY CATS THAN CITY CATS HAS BEEN KNOWN TO REPLICATE TO A CERTAIN POINT IN DOGS, BUT DOES NOT CAUSE INFECTION IS NOT RELATED TO CANINE DISTEMPER!!
Transmission Not a zoonotic disease Transmitted by direct contact or from a contaminated environment. - feces, urine, saliva, licking, sneezing, or biting The virus shed into the environment may be infectious for years. Can spread 2 -6 weeks post recovery The virus enters a cat’s body through the mucous membranes. It then moves to the bloodstream and eventually travels throughout the cat’s system
Clinical Signs � � Peracute- cases may die suddenly with little or no warning (Fading kittens) Acute- show fever (104 – 107 degrees F), depression, anorexia. Vomiting usually develops 1 -2 days after onset of fever. Diarrhea may or may not be present Subacute – Between acute and chronic Subclinical – without clinical manifestations. Detectable by clinicopathological (both signs of disease and its pathology) tests but not by a clinical examination
Con’t � � The panleukopenia virus attacks and destroys WBC. An infected cat often lowers their head over the water bowl, thirsty but unable to drink.
Other Symptoms � � � Dehydration Lethargy Endotoxemia & Bactermia ( the presence of bacteria or toxins in the blood) Cerebellar disease Retinal defects
DIAGNOSTIC TESTING � � � THE SNAP PARVOVIRUS TEST DESIGNED FOR DOGS USUALLY DETECTS PANLUEKOPENIA AS WELL USING A PCR TEST (POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION) RAISING ANTIBODY TITER
Preventions � � � Kittens should be vaccinated between 8 and 10 weeks of age, then again after 12 to 14 weeks. Excellent inactive and modified live virus vaccines that provide solid, long-lasting immunity are available for prevention. Disinfection of food bowl, bedding and utensils also the virus can live on human clothing and shoes (fomites).
Con’t � If an outbreak does occur a thorough disinfection of the entire premises needs to be made after an outbreak of feline panleukopenia in a home shared by cats. The only disinfectant presently acknowledged is a dilute bleach solution, of 1: 9 (one part bleach to nine parts water. )
Recommended Treatments � � � � Feline panleukopenia requires aggressive treatment if the cat is to survive, because this disease can kill cats in less than 24 hours. Vigorous fluid therapy Supportive nursing care in an isolated unit Treatments of animals should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian. Antibiotics to prevent or correct infection Bland diets with small portions Medications to stop the vomiting Whole blood transfusion to improve pancytopenia.
PATHOGENESIS FPV ENTERS FROM THE OROPHARYNX AND REPLICATES IN REGIONAL LYMPHOID TISSUES � COMMON NEUROLOGICAL TISSUES AFFECTED ARE CEREBELLUM, CEREBRUM, RETINA AND OPPTIC NERVE � THE VIRUS NEEDS TO INFECT THE S PHASE OF THE CELL CYCLE TO �
Pathogenic Lesions of Disease � � Dehydration Bowel loops are usually dilated and may have thickened, hyperemic walls Noticeable small cerebellum Blunting and fusion of villi may be present
Diagnostic Test � � � CBC Fecal Examination Serum Antibodies Viral Isolation Looks for low WBC count
Expected Results � � � Rising antibody titer over a period of time Presence of viral antigens DNA in a sample suggests active ongoing infection
PREVENTION � � � VACCINATION! EVEN LIONS, TIGERS, MINKS, AND RACOONS ARE ALSO SUSCEPTIBLE NO VACCINE-RESTRAINT RECALLS HAVE BEEN REPORTED AVAILABLE IN MLV AND KILLED INJECTABLES OR INTRANASAL VACCINES VACCINATE KITTENS AT 9, 12, AND 16 WEEKS OLD AND THEN AGAIN ONE YEAR LATER LIVE VIRUS VACCINES CAN CAUSE CEREBELLUM DAMAGE
Prognosis � � Of affected kittens that are two months or less of age, 95% die regardless of treatment. Kittens that are more than two months old have a 60 -70% mortality rate with treatment and nearly 100% mortality rate if not treated. Adult cats have a 10 -20% mortality rate if treated, and a 85% mortality rate if not treated. Elderly cats have a 20 -30% mortality rate if treated, and a 90% mortality rate if not treated.
Client Education � � Cats that survive the infection acquire a lifelong immunity. It is also possible for kittens to receive immunity from their mother through the transfer of antibody The most effective means of prevention is by preventing exposure to infected cats by keeping them indoors. Yearly boosters should be given.
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References � � � Summers, Alleice. Common Diseases of Companion Animals. 2 nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier, 2007. Print. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. " Cat Health Guide. Web. 04 Mar. 2011.
REFRENCES � � � COMMON DISEASES OF COMPANION ANIMALS BY ALLEICE SUMMERS http: //www. vet. uga. edu/vpp/clerk/mcninch/index. php http: //www. sniksnak. com/cathealth/distemper. html http: //www. peteducation. com/article. cfm? c=1+2139&ai d=222 http: //www. merckvetmanual. com/mvm/index. jsp? cfile= htm/bc/57100. htm