Feeding Bio Fuels Coproducts to Livestock Challenges to

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Feeding Bio. Fuels Co-products to Livestock: Challenges to Animal Health NIAA, Sacramento, 4/2/07 Gavin

Feeding Bio. Fuels Co-products to Livestock: Challenges to Animal Health NIAA, Sacramento, 4/2/07 Gavin L Meerdink, DVM, D. ABVT

Where to put the corn. . ?

Where to put the corn. . ?

User Definitions: Based on consistency of product • Coproduct • the output of a

User Definitions: Based on consistency of product • Coproduct • the output of a consistent process – materials from a “consistent, ” quality conscious manufacturing process which has “predictable” food value – (distillers grains, corn gluten, soy hulls, etc. ) • Byproduct • material with inconsistent ingredients or quality that can not be used for original intended purpose – inconsistent materials; may be unknown constituents – (corn screenings, gin trash, rejected grains, off-spec food ingredients, litter, rinse water, etc. )

ETHANOL

ETHANOL

Confusion • • • DG distiller’s grains DGS distiller’s grains with solubles DDGS distiller’s

Confusion • • • DG distiller’s grains DGS distiller’s grains with solubles DDGS distiller’s dried grains with solubles Corn gluten feed--wet Corn gluten feed Corn gluten meal Brewers dried grains Malt sprouts Distillers dried grains

2 Ethanol plant process types • Wet Milling • Dry Grind

2 Ethanol plant process types • Wet Milling • Dry Grind

Ethanol plant process types • Wet Milling – 1 st: fractionation » steep in

Ethanol plant process types • Wet Milling – 1 st: fractionation » steep in weak sulfurous acid solution – starch, germ, fiber, protein • Starch: • Fiber: hi fructose corn syrup ethanol → DDGS (minor source) corn gluten feed (wet or dry) • Protein: corn gluten meal

Ethanol plant process types • Wet Milling • Dry Grind • Entire corn kernel

Ethanol plant process types • Wet Milling • Dry Grind • Entire corn kernel ground, initial process • Fermentation → ethanol → DDGS • Most of the ethanol from dry grind process plants

Issues for Health, • Variability corn coproducts (plant to plant; load to load) »

Issues for Health, • Variability corn coproducts (plant to plant; load to load) » Routine analyses ‘may be’ warranted • wet wt. v. dry wt.

Issues for Health, • Variability corn coproducts (plant to plant; load to load) •

Issues for Health, • Variability corn coproducts (plant to plant; load to load) • Phosphorus – Ca: P ratios in cattle diets can vary 1: 1 to 7: 1 – If < 1: 1 problem

Composition % D. M. (NRC 1982) Corn protein 10. 9 Crude fiber 2. 9

Composition % D. M. (NRC 1982) Corn protein 10. 9 Crude fiber 2. 9 P 0. 3 S 0. 12 DDGS 25 9. 9 0. 7 0. 33 28 -33 5. 4 -10. 42 -0. 99 (var) Corn Gluten Feed 26 9. 7 0. 8 0. 23 Corn Gluten Meal 67 2. 2 0. 5 0. 39

Issues for Health, • Variability corn coproducts (plant to plant; load to load) •

Issues for Health, • Variability corn coproducts (plant to plant; load to load) • Phosphorus → urolithiasis • urinary calculi, calculosis, “water belly”, kidney stones • Inversion of Ca: P ratio • Mg also a factor – Also “high” in DDGS and CGF – Max tolerated, ruminant diets ~ 0. 4%

Issues for Health, corn coproducts • Variability (plant to plant; load to load) •

Issues for Health, corn coproducts • Variability (plant to plant; load to load) • Phosphorus → urolithiasis • Sulphur → Polioencephalomalacia – S concentrations > ~0. 25 % hazard – (difficult interpretation: multiple S compounds besides sulfates and sulfides. . . AA, organic S’s, 5 oxidation states) – Copper (low diet—relation) – Gradual diet incorporation: especially naïve animals

Composition % D. M. (NRC 1982) Corn protein 10. 9 Crude fiber 2. 9

Composition % D. M. (NRC 1982) Corn protein 10. 9 Crude fiber 2. 9 P 0. 3 S 0. 12 DDGS 25 9. 9 0. 7 0. 33 28 -33 5. 4 -10. 42 -0. 99 (var) Corn Gluten Feed 26 9. 7 0. 8 0. 23 Corn Gluten Meal 67 2. 2 0. 5 0. 39

Issues for Health, corn coproducts • Variability (plant to plant; load to load) •

Issues for Health, corn coproducts • Variability (plant to plant; load to load) • Phosphorus → urolithiasis • Sulphur → sulfates • Copper deficiency – Given affinity of Cu and SO 4’s, DDGS & CGF have been implicated in decreased Cu absorption

Issues for Health, corn coproducts: Other • Whatever else came with Corn + plant

Issues for Health, corn coproducts: Other • Whatever else came with Corn + plant additions during processing – Mycotoxins (do survive processing) • Aflatoxins: year/region; milk residues • Ochratoxin: potential, regional • Fumonisins: hazard in equine diets – Antimicrobial agents (processing aids) • Virginiamycin, others (? ) – Residues (animal products, environment)

Future? (. . for example) • US Dept of Energy investment $385 mil in

Future? (. . for example) • US Dept of Energy investment $385 mil in six plants throughout US: – “Cellulosic ethanol conversion technologies & commercialization” – Research on novel source materials: • plant cellulose materials, e. g. , stovers, straws, grasses, cobs, etc. • Vegetable wastes • Wood chips • Landfill green & wood waste

BIODIESEL • Sources: What are they? – Soybeans – other oil seed sources –

BIODIESEL • Sources: What are they? – Soybeans – other oil seed sources – Lipids. . other sources • What are the coproducts? ?

Biodiesel Co. Products issues: • Glycerin (glycerol) – Energy source – Nutritional research needed

Biodiesel Co. Products issues: • Glycerin (glycerol) – Energy source – Nutritional research needed • Methanol. . • Animals, particularly ruminants, less sensitive to methanol than humans • CO 2 + H 2 O –> O=CH–OH (formate) –> O=CH 2 (formaldehyde) –> CH 3–OH (methanol) –> CH 4 (methane)

Biodiesel Co. Products issues: • Source dependent • e. g. , raw soybeans do

Biodiesel Co. Products issues: • Source dependent • e. g. , raw soybeans do contain antimetabolite compounds • Residues – Particularly from non-ag crop residues? ?

Contamination: e. g. , Dioxins • Twenty dioxin (D)/furan (F)/polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were

Contamination: e. g. , Dioxins • Twenty dioxin (D)/furan (F)/polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in yellow grease (waste fats and oils from restaurants) and in rendered fat from cattle, poultry, swine and mixed animal species (8 -18 samples per commodity). The total D/F/PCB levels found ranged from 0 to 1. 6 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ). These levels were below the 3. 0 ppt TEQ maximum residue limit (MRL) recently proposed by the European Communities (EC) for D/F/PCB in animal fat. (Dr. Lovell, FDA, 2005)

Grain Co. Products use future: – Co. Products will change as processes change for

Grain Co. Products use future: – Co. Products will change as processes change for extraction of new product • New product extraction techniques – Economics • Tax abatements • Source commodities prices • Processing costs/efficiencies • More attention will be focused toward coproducts when profit from them is needed.

Presently: “The SAFETY of grains coproducts at this time ultimately rests upon the user.

Presently: “The SAFETY of grains coproducts at this time ultimately rests upon the user. ” * * Eventually: Plants should become more involved with product safety and problem investigation. (for their own protection)

Acknowledgements • • Ronald Belyea, U. of Mo Kent Rausch, U of IL Mike

Acknowledgements • • Ronald Belyea, U. of Mo Kent Rausch, U of IL Mike Tumbleson, U of IL V. J. Singh, U of IL Rausch, Belyea: The future of Coproducts from corn processing. Appl Bioch Biotech 128(47 -85), 2006. Mineral Tolerances of Animals, 2 nd Rev Edition. NRC of the National Academies, 2005

Cost Comparisons (Feedstuffs; 3/26/07; Chicago) $/Ton Protein % Corn (@ $2. 10/bu) $147 10.

Cost Comparisons (Feedstuffs; 3/26/07; Chicago) $/Ton Protein % Corn (@ $2. 10/bu) $147 10. 9 Soybean Meal $217 48 DDGS $133 25 Corn Gluten Feed $98 26 Corn Gluten Meal $365 67