- Slides: 29
Father of the Microscope Father to the term "Cell"
• Botanist first to study plant cells. • Studied animal cells first
• Plants cells made other plant cells • Animal cells made other animal cells
n proposed the cell theory in 1838 • cell biology research was forever changed.
n n used a crude compound microscope to view a cork and seen honey comb shapes in 1665. He coined the term cells since they reminded him of the small box cells Monks lived in.
n n Microscopes - magnify things not visible with human eyesight alone. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek , used a single lens to view cells in the 1600’s.
n in the 1830’s • viewed organisms underneath microscopes and verified that all living things are made of cells.
n Microscope • has a series of lenses that magnifies the object in steps. n Microscope • electrons are aimed in a beam through a magnetic field to focus them then, through or over a specimen in a vacuum, and finally onto a screen where it forms a image.
n Cells have to be limited in size by natural laws. • enough to hold the essential components • enough to accommodate nutrients received and disposed.
n Large cells have less surface volume relative to its size than small cells. • So the bigger the cell doesn’t mean more effective. n The smaller cells can be serviced better by the cytoplasm.
n Computer chip technology • is similar to this natural phenomena.
n Eukaryote CELLS (PLANT, ANIMAL, PROTIST & FUNGI) • range from 10 micrometers to 100 micrometers in diameter. n PROKAROTE CELLS (BACTERIA) • are a lot smaller and structurally simple
n n is the first type of cell to evolve, there are NO internal organelle structures. It has DNA and cytoplasm and most likely single celled.
n n Bacterial Cells Capsules – • Act as cell walls n Circular DNA • Genetic information n coiled DNA • No membrane for nucleoid region.
n Prokaryotic cells • are small and structurally simple • Simple membrane bound cytoplasm • DNA • RNA n All Bacteria cells are Prokaryotes
n n They can be single cell or multicellular organisms. Eukaryote - The second type of cell formed.
n Complexity • Organelles n Nuclei n Plants have cell walls n Large Vacuole
n Multi cellular and Unicellular types have: • Plant - multi • Animal - multi • Protist – single and multi • Fungi - single and multi
Cell Composition n Plasma membrane n Cytoplasm n Organelles n Nucleus n Cell Wall (only in plants)
Animal & Plant Cell ORGANELLES n Eukaryotic cells have functional compartments: n n NUCLEUS – Contains: • DNA – stores genetic information • RNA – transmits genetic information n n Messenger - m. RNA n Transfer – t. RNA n Ribosomal - r. RNA Ribosome - makes proteins • Assembles amino acids into polypeptides polymers.
Animal & Plant Cell ORGANELLES n Flagella – motor transport of cell (Animal & Protists) n Centriole– helps cell division (Animal) n Lysosome – breaks down particles. (Animal) n Golgi Apparatus – stores and packages n Plasma Membrane – regulates entry in to the cell and maintains homeostasis
Animal & Plant Cell Organelles n n n Endoplasmic Reticulum Transport passage for the cells chemicals. Types of E. R. : • Smooth – no ribosomes • Rough – with ribosomes
Animal Cell Organelles n n Mitochondrion – energy generator of the cell (battery) Cytoskeleton – Supports the cells structure • Microtubule – comprises the cytoskeleton • Microfilament - comprises the cytoskeleton
Plant Cell Organelles n Cell Wall – Composed of Cellulose • Give strength and structure to plants n n Vacuole - Storage Chloroplast – Absorb sunlight for photosynthesis.
n n n 1. All life forms are made from one or more cells. 2. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells. 3. The cell is the smallest form of life. Cells
The Cell Theory n Schleiden and Schwann proposed the cell theory in 1838, • cell biology research was forever changed.