- Slides: 25
Love is a Fallacy • http: //safeshare. tv/w/GHCvz. QQs. LU
What is wrong with the following sentences? 1. I love Disneyland because I’m always happy there. 2. Everyone on the team wears Nike shoes; it’s the only way to go! 3. I love music, therefore I love Justin Bieber.
Objective • To understand what makes a logical fallacy, how to catch someone when they are using one (perhaps to pull a fast-one on you), and how to avoid using them in your own writing and dialogue.
Logical Fallacy • A logical fallacy is a statement that contains faulty reasoning. Don’t give your reader a reason to doubt your information. Persuasive writing especially requires sound logic to support opinions.
Circular Reasoning • Supporting a statement by simply repeating it in different words. • Teens should avoid fad diets, because it is important for adolescents to stay away from weight-loss plans. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/Zm. ZFEOhlb. V
Either / Or Fallacy • A statement that suggests that there are only 2 choices available in a situation that really offers more than 2 options. • Either students should be allowed to go off campus for lunch to Burger King, or they should choose from the cafeteria’s food.
Oversimplification • An explanation of a complex situation or problem as if it were much simpler than it is. • Making the team depends on whether the coach likes you. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/m. Mb. PUi. IHwk
Overgeneralization • A broad generalization. • No one cares about the story. • A little kid might say: “All birds can fly. ”
Stereotyping • A dangerous type of overgeneralization. • All girls can’t play sports. • All boys lie and cheat. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/DJj. Ka. OUe. Es
Attacking the person or namecalling (poisoning the well) • An attempt to discredit an idea by attacking the person or group associated with it. • My opponent is not smart enough to be mayor. • She is basic. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/bc. JSi. Xpgx. D
Evading the Issue • Refuting an objection with arguments and evidence that do not address its central point. • I know I am late, but you look beautiful. • What you do with your parents when you are in trouble! • http: //screen. yahoo. com/broken-newsdaily/teachers-hilarious-response-awfulexam-224511848. html
Non sequitur (post hoc) • A statement that uses irrelevant proof to support a claim. The "After This, Therefore, Because of This" Fallacy • Ten minutes after walking into the auditorium, I began to feel sick to my stomach. There must have been something in the air in that building that caused my nausea. • The stock market declined shortly after the election of the president, thus indicating the lack of confidence the business community has in the new administration. • I know I’ll pass math. Mr. Gray is my math teacher and my football coach. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/TRKiv. AKTGn
False Cause • The mistake of assuming that because one event occurred after another event in time, the first event caused the second to occur. • I failed English because of football. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/CNZtvvy. Kr. R
False Analogy • A comparison that doesn’t hold up because of a critical difference between the two subjects. • She walks to school and back every day, so surely she can walk in a 10 K race. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/zur. Ht. Cc. Ave
Hasty Generalization • A conclusion drawn from too little evidence or from evidence that is biased. • That corner must be dangerous. There were two car accidents there last week.
Bandwagon Appeal • Uses the argument that a person should believe or do something because “everyone else” does. • The Cardinals are a winning team and everyone likes them so you should to. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/m. QQQmw. LGcd
Testimonial • Relies on endorsements from well-known people or celebrities. • Proactive-Jessica Simpson • Gatorade-Michael Jordan • http: //safeshare. tv/w/yuh. HTXhv. Tb
Snob Appeal • Taps into people’s desire to be special or be part of an elite group. • Treat yourself to a tropical paradise because you deserve the best. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/Hossgo. HPl. I
Transfer • Connects a product, candidate, or cause with a positive emotion or idea. • Freedom…you can feel it the instant you put your hands on the new Jeep Wrangler. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/yk. Ln. OPg. QWH
Appeal to Loyalty • Relies on people’s affiliation with a particular group • This car is made in America by Americans. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/PCZDQVy. VGa
Appeals to pity, fear, or vanity • Use strong feelings rather than facts to persuade. • Without more police, we will be at the mercy of thieves. • http: //safeshare. tv/w/w. EQpa. VPtd. Q • http: //safeshare. tv/w/yy. Tq. Ctn. MZx
Glittering Generality • Makes a generalization that includes a word or phrase with positive connotations (feelings) to promote a product or idea. • A vote for Tom Jones is a vote for democracy! • http: //safeshare. tv/w/j. Jd. VQDGwku
Review 1. 2. 3. Camaro - http: //safeshare. tv/w/DJRe. Zb. YKs. R Axe - http: //safeshare. tv/w/Lyt. LFWXe. NG Chicken - http: //safeshare. tv/w/o. DZOe. Ynh. OA 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Coke - http: //safeshare. tv/w/toi. Hvng. Cu. M Dove - http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=i. Yh. Cn 0 jf 46 U Hulu - http: //safeshare. tv/w/GAr. Bdoj. Zlw Mac - http: //safeshare. tv/w/Ouvl. VSCXDf Grey Poupon - http: //safeshare. tv/w/o. Dj. Eo. XAFl. U Pepsi- http: //safeshare. tv/w/ZFGEa. MDHhh Gatorade – http: //safeshare. tv/w/m. Ywi. LXtar. V Mc. Donald’s - http: //safeshare. tv/w/Jbtv. EXp. Xw. P Hanes - http: //safeshare. tv/w/twv. Uy. Iztd. L Smoking - http: //safeshare. tv/w/DLAWyq. IGDJ Subway – http: //safeshare. tv/w/Cx. Eq. Imtr. MA ASPCA - http: //safeshare. tv/w/DYvo. Vjr. Mfg Chevrolet Truck - http: //safeshare. tv/w/Ve. Nx. KBc. Qvn Brain Food - http: //safeshare. tv/w/DIuk. LRx. Otn Infiniti - http: //safeshare. tv/w/un. KLnrci. DQ Doritos - http: //safeshare. tv/w/cgze. Jiw. FAk Sleaziest Political Ads - http: //safeshare. tv/w/FYWIi. Mn. HSn
Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Camaro – Either/ Or, Appeal to Loyalty, Glittering Generality, Transfer Axe – False Cause, Oversimplification, stereotyping, hast generalization, bandwagon Chicken - stereotyping Coke - Either/ Or, appeal to loyalty, glittering generality Dove - Appeal to vanity, transfer, evading the issue Hulu – False Analogy, Testimonial, appeal to emotion Mac – either/ or. , name-calling, Grey Poupon – Snob Appeal Pepsi - Bandwagon, testimonial. , transfer, glittering genrality Gatorade – Transfer, bandwagon, glittering generality, false analogy Mc. Donald’s – testimonial, Hanes - testimonial Smoking – appeal to fear Subway – appeal to vanity, ASPCA – appeal to pity Chevrolet Truck - ethos, oversimplification, snob appeal Brain Food – appeal to vanity, Infiniti – false analogy, snob appeal Doritos - bandwagon Sleaziest Political Ads – name- calling,