Faculty and Graduate Student Gender Diversity in Research

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Faculty and Graduate Student Gender Diversity in Research Universities: Challenges and Opportunities Cristina Amon

Faculty and Graduate Student Gender Diversity in Research Universities: Challenges and Opportunities Cristina Amon Carnegie Mellon University WEPAN Pittsburgh, June 12, 2006

Some Statistics http: //www. jhu. edu/news_info/news/home 04/sep 04/nsfgr ant. html • Blacks, Hispanics and

Some Statistics http: //www. jhu. edu/news_info/news/home 04/sep 04/nsfgr ant. html • Blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans are 23% of U. S. population but only 6% of engineering labor force • Black women account for 0. 6% of science, engineering and technology work force. For Hispanic women, the figure is 0. 4% • In academia, men are five times more likely than women to choose engineering as their major. In 1998, of the bachelor's degrees awarded to women, only 1. 7% were in engineering

Statistics - BS degrees in Engineering • Female BS degrees have been ~ constant;

Statistics - BS degrees in Engineering • Female BS degrees have been ~ constant; male decreased • Many undergraduates who initially major in engineering do not stay through graduation • In 2001, retention rate for white students was 62%; among minority students, it was only 38% NSF Data -- female ~ 21 %

Doctoral degrees in Engineering NSF Data -- female ~ 17 %

Doctoral degrees in Engineering NSF Data -- female ~ 17 %

Senior Engineering Faculty (Full and Associate Profs) Senior engineering faculty is ~93% male, which

Senior Engineering Faculty (Full and Associate Profs) Senior engineering faculty is ~93% male, which may be a factor in why many women and minorities often report feeling marginalized; being tokens NSF Data -- female < 7 %

Junior Engineering Faculty (Assist Profs and Lecturers) NSF Data -- female ~ 17%

Junior Engineering Faculty (Assist Profs and Lecturers) NSF Data -- female ~ 17%

Total Engineering Faculty NSF Data -- female < 11%

Total Engineering Faculty NSF Data -- female < 11%

Status – Problem Definition to Solution Paths We have moved: • From defining the

Status – Problem Definition to Solution Paths We have moved: • From defining the problem and arguing whether a problem exists to acknowledging it and thinking of possible solutions – great and needed first step • From thinking of this as an individual’s “problem” to possibilities for institutional transformation – starting with attitudes and anecdotes such as “girls can’t do math”, there has been systematic research on the underlying social and institutional factors; we have begun to address them.

Status – Problem Definition to Solution Paths • From being a “grassroots movement” with

Status – Problem Definition to Solution Paths • From being a “grassroots movement” with mostly women scholars and activists looking at the problem to institutional leaders taking up the challenge of inclusion. • In the current phase, institutions, especially some research universities and their leadership and Presidents, have taken on the challenge -- this is promising! However, despite efforts, progress has been slow. . . Research Universities lead in setting agendas for choice of problems to address. . . And therefore it’s important to get enough representation in these.

Challenges Increase number of students in Engineering and S&E • Early socialization and expectations,

Challenges Increase number of students in Engineering and S&E • Early socialization and expectations, including children’s perceptions of men’s and women’s careers; tinkering in play • Academic counseling and course-taking patterns; dropping math early Retain students in Engineering and S&E • College --being only one in classes, labs; not speaking out -here is where women’s colleges have been shown to graduate disproportionate numbers in science. . . • Lack of mentoring and role models; of networks

Challenges (con’t) Pipeline leakage: From BS to Ph. D • As industry has been

Challenges (con’t) Pipeline leakage: From BS to Ph. D • As industry has been more proactive in recruiting women, many women engineers choose a career path that is not to Ph. D and research universities – this exacerbates some of the above problems From Ph. D to academia • Trying to maintain balance between family and work; critical time after Ph. D to build research track record, obtain tenure … –as well as critical time to start a family! this affects grad studies and faculty tracks particularly!

Opportunities Institutional transformation has begun • Several presidents (Chuck Vest and Jared Cohon among

Opportunities Institutional transformation has begun • Several presidents (Chuck Vest and Jared Cohon among others) have made –diversity – a priority and have instituted accountability measures at their institutions. – e. g. , at CMU, departmental annual reports and Advisory Board reports have to provide data on the state of diversity and what efforts are being made. .

Opportunities (con’t) Some programs such as NSF’s ADVANCE are intentionally designed to promote institutional

Opportunities (con’t) Some programs such as NSF’s ADVANCE are intentionally designed to promote institutional transformation. Example, in 2004, Dean Ilene Busch-Vishniac, Johns Hopkins, revamped the engineering curriculum with a NSF grant to “increase the links between fundamentals and applications, and between technical and non-technical topics, streamline the path to the degree by eliminating artificial prerequisites, introduce team experiences into all courses and foster a climate of inclusion rather than exclusion. ” (http: //www. jhu. edu/news_info/news/home 04/sep 04/nsfgrant. html)

Opportunities (con’t) • Increasing number of engineering Deans, Provosts and Presidents at research universities

Opportunities (con’t) • Increasing number of engineering Deans, Provosts and Presidents at research universities are women – this helps promote both climate change and change perceptions of all! – 22 Women are engineering Deans and 7 female engineers or scientists are university Presidents; some recently became Provosts.

Summary • Acknowledge diversity problem and institutional efforts • Progress has been made in

Summary • Acknowledge diversity problem and institutional efforts • Progress has been made in increasing gender diversity in Faculty and Graduate Students in Research Universities • However, number of female BS in Engineering has remained constant and there is a constant pipeline leakage from BS to Ph. D and Ph. D to academia • Progress has been much slower regarding Blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans

questions

questions

BS degrees in Engineering NSF Data -- female ~ 21 %

BS degrees in Engineering NSF Data -- female ~ 21 %