Factors Affecting Aquatic Ecosystems BENCHMARK SC. 912. L. 17. 2 Explain the general distribution of life in aquatic systems as a function of chemistry, geography, light, depth, salinity, and temperature.
ABIOTIC vs. BIOTIC FACTORS Study the pictures below. Can you name the abiotic factors as well as the biotic factors?
Copy table and list 5 abiotic & biotic factors
Essential Question Are non-living materials essential to the continuation of life? https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=wo. SO 0 D 94 VGA
Factors Needed for Survival All living organisms require some nonliving (abiotic) factors to survive.
Essential Question https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Wf. GMYdal. Cl. U What kind of environmental changes might alter the availability of these resources?
Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis Enzymes are an important factor in photosynthesis. But they are sensitive to temperature. The enzymes will not function if temperatures are extreme. Enzymes will reduce or even halt their processes in extremes. Study the graph below and answer the questions following.
Data Analysis 1. What happens to the rate of photosynthesis (y axis) as the temperature climbs to 25 degrees Celsius? 2. Once the temperature exceeds 25 degrees Celsius, what happens to the photosynthesis production? 3. Compare the ineffectiveness of photosynthesis on either side of the graph. Make a statement about the “curve” as you compare both sides. 4. Considering that photosynthesis is food production (glucose) for the plant, what can you generalize about temperature and the health of plants?
Effect Sunlight on the Rate of Photosynthesis
Producers (Terrestrial & Aquatic) So often we think of trees as the oxygen producers for living organisms, when in reality, it is the oceans’ algae that produces at least half, if not more of our atmospheric oxygen. The green areas below indicate the highest degree of high biological productivity.
Types of Aquatic Systems ? Can you give some locale examples from each type?
Essential Question How can we define a pond environment as it differs from the aquatic environment of a deep ocean trench?
Factors Affecting Aquatic Ecosystems
Table: Factors Affecting Aquatic Ecosystems Factor Light Depth Temperature Salinity Dissolved Oxygen Description
FACTOR: Light • • • sunlight is essential for photosynthesis to occur as light strikes the surface of the water, much is reflected back more movement made by the water, the more light is reflected off of the surface and back into the atmosphere • • most visible light waves are absorbed within 33 ft. (10 meters) blue and violet waves of light travel deepest, giving most water its color
Euphotic vs. Aphotic https: //www. youtube. com/watch ? feature=player_detailpage&v=ufx Gw 8 Eq. Y 5 Q&list=PLM 9 m 7 R 4 mnh 9 9 Hd. A 5 s 9 Qx. Ue. Z 18 Rg. Vn. QWSQ https: //www. youtube. com/watch? featur e=player_detailpage&v=UXl 8 F-e. Ioi. M
FACTOR: Depth • where sunlight reach more organisms live • aquatic plants use sunlight to make food • as sunlight decreases amount of plants and animals decrease • deep ocean water is too dark for photosynthesis So what about th e depths o f aquatic environm ents? Is it lifeless and useless?
If the recycled nutrients are on the bottom, how do they bring nourishment to plant life near the surface? Upwelling • Temperature and currents will cause the recycled nutrients on the bottom of the ocean to move up and come to the surface • provides nutrients for the phytoplankton, and thus for the entire ecosystem
FACTOR: Temperature • visible light translates into heat • three temperature zones in ocean water.
1. Where would you expect to see temperature fluctuate , or change, the most? 2. Where would you expect to see more constant temperatures?
FACTOR: Salinity https: //www. youtube. com/watch? feature=pla yer_detailpage&v=w_8 mw-1 HYFg • salt water becomes more concentrated in areas where the sun’s intense heat causes water to evaporate à denser surface water forms currents as it falls to the lower levels of the ocean and rises again à called thermohaline current ( “Thermo” = heat, “haline” = salt)
• salinity: measure of dissolved solids • organisms have specific salinity ranges in which they can survive in
Estuaries: Tolerant to Changes in Salinity • animals that have the ability to adapt are blue crabs and oysters • mangroves are short trees with roots that not only tolerate change in salinity, but they also provide protection for nesting animals among their many exposed roots • mud worms (bristleworms), stalkeyed mud crabs and cockles, a small burrowing shellfish • scallops, a popular seafood live in this constant flux of salinity https: //www. youtube. com/watch? feature=pla yer_detailpage&v=VS 86 D 5 Ppi. Cs
FACTOR: Dissolved Oxygen • oxygen is an essential element required for aerobic respiration • the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) varies in water. Where do y ou think most o f the oxygen is lo cated in the ocean waters? Hint #1 - Wind currents and waves stir up the surface water.
A marine biome characterized by no sunlight and deep water depths is A. the photic zone B. a bog C. a lake D. an aphotic zone
Based on the data, at what time of the day is the dissolved oxygen level in the tide pool greater that in the ocean? A. B. C. D. 6 am 4 pm midnight 2 am
A body of water in which both fresh and salt water mix is called a(n)__________. A. lake B. estuary C. stream D. tidal zone
Which of the following resources is a biotic factor? A. insects B. water C. light D. rock
Which of the following statements about a body of water is true? A. As depth increases, both temperature and light increase. B. Where light decreases, both temperature and depth are increasing. C. As depth increases, both temperature and light decrease. D. Where depth decreases, both light and temperature decreases as well.
Food production in this particular plant is affected by temperature. Which statement is true? A. Food production slows dramatically at temperatures between 10 and 20 degrees Celsius. B. Food production remains the same following the rise to 20 degrees Celsius. C. Food production drops as temperatures continue to increase beyond 30 degrees Celsius. D. Food production is greatest at lower temperatures.