EXPLORING WIND ENERGY What Makes Wind Global Wind

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EXPLORING WIND ENERGY

EXPLORING WIND ENERGY

What Makes Wind

What Makes Wind

Global Wind Patterns

Global Wind Patterns

History of Wind Energy 5000 BC 500 -900 AD 1300 AD Sailboats used on

History of Wind Energy 5000 BC 500 -900 AD 1300 AD Sailboats used on First windmills First horizontalthe Nile indicate developed in axis the power of wind Persia windmills in Europe 1888 Charles F. Brush used windmill to generate electricity in Cleveland, OH Early 1900 s Windmills in CA pumped saltwater to evaporate ponds 1993 US Wind. Power developed first commercial variable-speed wind turbine 1850 s Daniel Halladay and John Burnham build Halladay Windmill; start US Wind Engine Company 1941 In VT, Grandpa’s Knob turbine supplies power to town during WWII 2004 Electricity from wind generation costs 3 to 4. 5 cents per k. Wh Late 1880 s Thomas O. Perry conducted 5, 000 wind experiments; starts Aermotor Company 1979 First wind turbine rated over 1 MW began operating 2013 Wind power provided over 17% of renewable energy used in US 1985 CA wind capacity exceeded 1, 000 MW 2016 Block Island Offshore Wind Farm was brought online (US’s first offshore wind farm)

Why Wind Energy? • Clean, zero emissions • NOx, SO 2, CO 2 •

Why Wind Energy? • Clean, zero emissions • NOx, SO 2, CO 2 • Air quality, water quality • Climate change • Reduce fossil fuel dependence • Energy independence • Domestic energy—national security • Renewable • No fuel-price volatility

Renewable Electric Capacity Worldwide

Renewable Electric Capacity Worldwide

US Electricity Generation from Non-Hydro Renewables

US Electricity Generation from Non-Hydro Renewables

Top Wind Power Producing States, 2016

Top Wind Power Producing States, 2016

Annual Installed U. S. Wind Power Capacity American Wind Energy Association | U. S.

Annual Installed U. S. Wind Power Capacity American Wind Energy Association | U. S. Wind Industry Second Quarter 2018 Market Report | Public Version

Installed Wind Capacities 1999 Total: 2, 500 MW Total: 90, 003 MW As of

Installed Wind Capacities 1999 Total: 2, 500 MW Total: 90, 003 MW As of 5/2/2018

Wind Energy Potential by State

Wind Energy Potential by State

U. S. Wind Resource Map

U. S. Wind Resource Map

Transmission Challenges

Transmission Challenges

China Leads the World in Wind Capacity Total Installed Generating Capacity (MW) Source: Global

China Leads the World in Wind Capacity Total Installed Generating Capacity (MW) Source: Global Wind Energy Council

Why Such Growth? …costs are low! • Increased Turbine Size • R&D Advances •

Why Such Growth? …costs are low! • Increased Turbine Size • R&D Advances • Manufacturing Improvements 1979 40 cents/k. Wh 2000 4 -6 cents/k. Wh 2004 3 -4. 5 cents/k. Wh 2017 Less than 5 cents/k. Wh

Modern Wind Turbines • Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the

Modern Wind Turbines • Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the orientation of the rotor.

Vertical-Axis Turbines Advantages • Omni-directional Disadvantages • Rotors generally near ground where wind is

Vertical-Axis Turbines Advantages • Omni-directional Disadvantages • Rotors generally near ground where wind is poorer • Centrifugal force stresses blades • ease of service • Poor self-starting capabilities • lighter weight towers • Can theoretically use less materials to capture the same amount of wind Requires support at top of turbine rotor • Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings • Overall poor performance and reliability • accepts wind from any direction • • Components can be mounted at ground level

Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines Intermediate(10 -250 k. W) Small (<10 k. W) • • •

Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines Intermediate(10 -250 k. W) Small (<10 k. W) • • • Homes Farms Remote Applications (e. g. , water pumping, Telecom sites, ice making) Large (250 k. W-2+ MW) • • • Village Power Hybrid Systems Distributed Power Central Station Wind Farms Distributed Power Schools

Wind Turbine Components

Wind Turbine Components

How a Wind Turbine Operates

How a Wind Turbine Operates

Installation of Wind Turbines

Installation of Wind Turbines

Wind Turbine Perspective Workers Blade 112’ long Nacelle 56 tons Tower 3 sections

Wind Turbine Perspective Workers Blade 112’ long Nacelle 56 tons Tower 3 sections

Wind Farms

Wind Farms

Offshore Wind Farms The first U. S. offshore wind farm is Block Island Wind

Offshore Wind Farms The first U. S. offshore wind farm is Block Island Wind Farm, located off the coast of Rhode Island. This five-turbine, 30 megawatt wind farm began operation in 2016.

Residential Wind Systems and Net Metering AC to Grid Wind Turbine AC Utility Meter

Residential Wind Systems and Net Metering AC to Grid Wind Turbine AC Utility Meter DC Voltage Input Inverter & Interconnects AC Voltage Input AC Electrical Circuits Main Utility Breaker Panel

Potential Impacts and Issues • • • Property Values Noise Visual Impact Land Use

Potential Impacts and Issues • • • Property Values Noise Visual Impact Land Use Wildlife Impact Properly siting a wind turbine can mitigate many of these issues.

Impacts of Wind Power: Noise

Impacts of Wind Power: Noise

Wildlife Impacts Top Common Human-caused Threats to Birds 3, 000, 000 Median/Avg. Estimated 2,

Wildlife Impacts Top Common Human-caused Threats to Birds 3, 000, 000 Median/Avg. Estimated 2, 500, 000 2, 400, 000 2, 000, 000 1, 500, 000 1, 000, 000 599, 000 500, 000 214, 500, 000 6, 600, 000 0 Cats Building Glass Collision Communication Towers 25, 500, 000 [VALUE] Collision - Vehicles Collision - Land. Electrical Lines based Wind Turbines Hazard Type

The NEED Project www. need. org info@need. org 1 -800 -875 -5029 Energy Information

The NEED Project www. need. org [email protected] org 1 -800 -875 -5029 Energy Information Administration U. S. Department of Energy www. eia. gov