Exploring Wind Energy What Makes Wind Exploring Wind

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Exploring Wind Energy

Exploring Wind Energy

What Makes Wind Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

What Makes Wind Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Global Wind Patterns Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Global Wind Patterns Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

History of Wind Energy 5000 BC 500 -900 AD Sailboats used on the First

History of Wind Energy 5000 BC 500 -900 AD Sailboats used on the First windmills Nile indicate the power developed in Persia of wind 1888 Charles F. Brush used windmill to generate electricity in Cleveland, OH Early 1900 s Windmills in CA pumped saltwater to evaporate ponds 1993 US Wind. Power developed first commercial variable-speed wind turbine 1300 AD First horizontal-axis windmills in Europe 1941 In VT, Grandpa’s Knob turbine supplies power to town during WWII 2004 Electricity from wind generation costs 3 to 4. 5 cents per k. Wh Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project 1850 s Daniel Halladay and John Burnham build Halladay Windmill; start US Wind Engine Company 1979 First wind turbine rated over 1 MW began operating 2013 Wind power provided over 17% of renewable energy used in US Late 1880 s Thomas O. Perry conducted 5, 000 wind experiments; starts Aermotor Company 1985 CA wind capacity exceeded 1, 000 MW 2016 Block Island Offshore Wind Farm was brought online (US’s first offshore wind farm)

Why Wind Energy? • Clean, zero emissions • NOx, SO 2, CO 2 •

Why Wind Energy? • Clean, zero emissions • NOx, SO 2, CO 2 • Air quality, water quality • Climate change • Reduce fossil fuel dependence • Energy independence • Domestic energy—national security • Renewable • No fuel-price volatility Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Renewable Electric Capacity Worldwide US DOE, EERE 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book Exploring Wind

Renewable Electric Capacity Worldwide US DOE, EERE 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project 05 19 7/ 7/ 05 19 7/

Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project 05 19 7/ 7/ 05 19 7/ 6/ 05 19 7/ 5/ 00 00 0: : 0 12 00 0: AM AM AM Wood 05 Geothermal 19 Waste AM Solar Thermal : 0 AM AM Solar PV 12 00 0: : 0 12 00 00 0: : 0 12 0 : 0 0: : 0 0 12 12 AM Wind 7/ 4/ 05 19 7/ 3/ 05 19 7/ 2/ 5 05 19 7/ 1/ 90 /1 00 0: : 0 12 00 0: 200000 30 5 5 : 0 12 Million kilowatt-hours 250000 6/ 90 /1 29 6/ 5 90 /1 28 6/ 90 /1 27 U. S. Electricity Generation from Non. Hydro Renewables 6/ 300000 150000 100000 50000 0

Top Wind Power Producing States, 2016 Rank State 1 Texas 2 Iowa 3 Rank

Top Wind Power Producing States, 2016 Rank State 1 Texas 2 Iowa 3 Rank Thousand MWh 57, 551 State Thousand MWh 14 Wyoming 4, 363 20, 049 15 New York 3, 946 Oklahoma 19, 526 16 Nebraska 3, 793 4 Kansas 14, 113 17 New Mexico 3, 614 5 California 13, 698 18 Pennsylvania 3, 472 6 Minnesota 10, 637 19 South Dakota 3, 145 7 Illinois 10, 627 20 Idaho 2, 427 8 Colorado 9, 425 21 Montana 2, 130 9 North Dakota 8, 080 22 Maine 1, 614 10 Washington 8, 042 23 Wisconsin 1, 521 11 Oregon 7, 163 24 West Virginia 1, 432 12 Indiana 4, 903 25 Ohio 1, 255 13 Michigan 4, 693 Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Annual Installed U. S. Wind Power Capacity American Wind Energy Association | U. S.

Annual Installed U. S. Wind Power Capacity American Wind Energy Association | U. S. Wind Industry Second Quarter 2018 Market Report | Public Version

Installed Wind Capacities |1999 -Present 1999 Total: 2, 500 MW Exploring Wind - 2018

Installed Wind Capacities |1999 -Present 1999 Total: 2, 500 MW Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project As of 5/2/2018 Total: 90, 003 MW

Wind Energy Potential by State Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Wind Energy Potential by State Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

U. S. Wind Resource Map Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

U. S. Wind Resource Map Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Transmission Challenges Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Transmission Challenges Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

China Leads the World in Wind Capacity Source: Global Wind Energy Council Exploring Wind

China Leads the World in Wind Capacity Source: Global Wind Energy Council Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Why Such Growth? …costs are low! • Increased Turbine Size • R&D Advances •

Why Such Growth? …costs are low! • Increased Turbine Size • R&D Advances • Manufacturing Improvements 1979 40 cents/k. Wh 2000 4 -6 cents/k. Wh Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project 2004 3 - 4. 5 cents/k. Wh 2017 Less than 5 cents/k. Wh

Modern Wind Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the orientation of

Modern Wind Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the orientation of the rotor. Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Vertical-Axis Turbines Advantages • Omni-directional • accepts wind from any direction • Components can

Vertical-Axis Turbines Advantages • Omni-directional • accepts wind from any direction • Components can be mounted at ground level • ease of service • lighter weight towers • Can theoretically use less materials to capture the same amount of wind Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project Disadvantages • • • Rotors generally near ground where wind is poorer Centrifugal force stresses blades Poor self-starting capabilities Requires support at top of turbine rotor Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings Overall poor performance and reliability

Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines Small (<10 k. W) Intermediate(10 -250 k. W) • Homes •

Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines Small (<10 k. W) Intermediate(10 -250 k. W) • Homes • Farms • Remote Applications (e. g. , water pumping, Telecom sites, ice making) Large (250 k. W-2+ MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Schools Exploring Wind - 10/19/17 - ©The NEED Project • Village Power • Hybrid Systems • Distributed Power

Large Wind Turbines Common Utility-Scale Turbines • 328’ base to blade • Each blade

Large Wind Turbines Common Utility-Scale Turbines • 328’ base to blade • Each blade is 112’ • 200 tons total • Foundation 20’ deep • Rated at 1. 5 -2 megawatts • Supply power to about 500 homes Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Wind Turbine Components

Wind Turbine Components

Installation of Wind Turbines Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Installation of Wind Turbines Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Wind Turbine Perspective Workers Blade 112’ long Nacelle 56 tons Tower 3 sections Exploring

Wind Turbine Perspective Workers Blade 112’ long Nacelle 56 tons Tower 3 sections Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Wind Farms Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Wind Farms Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Offshore Wind Farms The first U. S. offshore wind farm is Block Island Wind

Offshore Wind Farms The first U. S. offshore wind farm is Block Island Wind Farm, located off the coast of Rhode Island. This five-turbine, 30 megawatt wind farm began operation in 2016. Photo of Block Island Wind Farm Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Residential Wind Systems and Net Metering AC to Grid Wind Turbine AC Utility Meter

Residential Wind Systems and Net Metering AC to Grid Wind Turbine AC Utility Meter AC Electrical Circuits DC Voltage Input Inverter & Interconnects Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project AC Voltage Input Main Utility Breaker Panel

Potential Impacts and Issues • • • Property Values Noise Visual Impact Land Use

Potential Impacts and Issues • • • Property Values Noise Visual Impact Land Use Wildlife Impact Properly siting a wind turbine can mitigate many of these issues. Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

Impacts of Wind Power: Noise

Impacts of Wind Power: Noise

Wildlife Impacts Top Common Human-caused Threats to Birds 3, 000, 000 Median/Avg. Estimated 2,

Wildlife Impacts Top Common Human-caused Threats to Birds 3, 000, 000 Median/Avg. Estimated 2, 500, 000 2, 400, 000 2, 000, 000 1, 500, 000 2400 M 1, 000, 000 599, 000 500, 000 214, 500, 000 6, 600, 000 25, 500, 000 Collision Communication Towers Collision - Electrical Lines 0 Cats Building Glass [VALUE] Collision - Vehicles Collision - Land-based Wind Turbines Hazard Type Source: U. S. Fish and Wildlife · U. S. only, as of 2017 Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

For More Information The NEED Project www. need. org info@need. org 1 -800 -875

For More Information The NEED Project www. need. org [email protected] org 1 -800 -875 -5029 Energy Information Administration U. S. Department of Energy www. eia. gov Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project

NEED IS SOCIAL! Stay up-to-date with NEED. “Like” us on Facebook! Search for The

NEED IS SOCIAL! Stay up-to-date with NEED. “Like” us on Facebook! Search for The NEED Project, and check out all we’ve got going on! Follow us on Twitter. We share the latest energy news from around the country, @NEED_Project. Follow us on Instagram and check out the photos taken at NEED events, instagram. com/theneedproject. Follow us on Pinterest and pin ideas to use in your classroom, Pinterest. com/Need. Project. Exploring Wind - 2018 ©The NEED Project