- Slides: 41
Exploring the Dairy Industry Lesson 2
Exploring the Dairy Industry Lesson 2
Common Core/Next Generation Science Standards Addressed • CCSS. ELA-Literacy. RH. 9 -10. 4 - Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social or economic aspects of history/social science. • CCSS. ELA-Literacy. WHST. 9 -10. 2 a - Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e. g. , headings), graphics (e. g. , figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
Agriculture, Food and Natural Resource Standards Addressed! • AS. 01. Analyze historic and current trends impacting the animal systems industry. • AS. 01. Evaluate the development and implications of animal origin, domestication and distribution on production practices and the environment. • Sample Measurement: The following sample measurement strands are provided to guide the development of measurable activities (at different levels of proficiency) to assess students’ attainment of knowledge and skills related to the above performance indicator. The topics represented by each strand are not all-encompassing. • AS. 01. 02. b. Describe the historical and scientific developments of different animal industries and summarize the products, services and careers associated with each.
Bell Work • Name as many breeds of dairy cattle as you can? • How many dairy products did you eat yesterday? • How does the cows stomach differ from yours?
Student Learning Objectives • Identify major external parts of dairy cattle. • Describe major internal parts of dairy cattle. • Discuss selection of cattle to encourage herd improvement. • Explain dairy marketing options. • Explore the six major breeds of dairy cattle used for milking.
Terms • Artificial Insemination (AI) • Beef • Butterfat • Cattle by-products • Crossbreeding • Culling • Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) • • Gestation Mammary system Outcrossing Parturition Purebreeding Reproductive system Testes Veal
What are the major external parts of a dairy cow?
Major external parts of a dairy cow
What are the major internal parts of dairy cattle? Terms • Digestive system – The system that breaks down feed into energy, that is used for all basic life functions. • Reproductive system – The system used to reproduce cattle by natural, in vitro, and various artificial methods of insemination. • Mammary system – System that produces milk after parturition.
Reproductive System • Male system – Serves the purpose of producing sperm cells and the male sex hormones. • Female system – Serves the purpose of producing eggs and the female sex hormones estrogen & progesterone.
Mammary System • Produces milk – Milk contains butterfat, the butterfat is used to produce products like: butter & cheese. • Includes – Teats, udder, fore and rear udder attachments, alveoli, suspensory ligaments, mammary veins, and milk wells.
Parts of the Mammary System
How do I select cattle to improve my herd? Terms • Culling – removing animals from your herd based on a set criteria or other situations that may arise • Dairy Herd Improvement Program (DHI) – national dairy testing and record keeping program through which you test your herd and compare it with other herds • Artificial Insemination (AI) – a method, other than natural mating, used to bring the sperm in contact with eggs. Its man advantage is increasing the availability of superior genes to the herd
How do I select cattle to improve my herd? Terms • Purebreeding – the mating of a purebred animal to another purebred animal • Outcrossing – the mating of an unrelated male and female of the same breed • Crossbreeding – mating one breed of cattle to a recognized, but a different breed
How do I select cattle to improve my herd? • Purebreeding system – improves your herd by keeping registration papers – become familiar with genetics • Outcrossing system – helps produce hybrid vigor within the breed • Crossbreeding system – higher production and more resistance to disease – disadvantages • not able to register animals • difficult to predict what offspring may look like
What are some of the marketing options with dairy cattle? Terms • Veal – meat of young calves that are not used for replacement animals • Beef – meat from cattle • Cattle by-products – products made from various parts of the cattle
What are some of the marketing options with dairy cattle? Milk • Milk can be sold for fluid consumption. • Milk can be sold to processing plants that produce products like cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. • Milk can be sold to a dehydration plant to make powdered milk for increased shelf life. • Milk can also be sold to processing plants that produce protein powders and other dietary supplements.
What are some of the marketing options with dairy cattle? Veal • Calves fed a specific diet to keep color of lean meat in carcass a light pink • Usually under 3 months of age • Fed a diet of milk only Beef • Cows no longer profitable because of age, production or reproduction • Sold for slaughter and used for beef • Male offspring not used for breeding
What are some of the marketing options with dairy cattle? Cattle by-products • Come from the: – carcass, fat, bones, glands, intestines, brains, heart, and many other places • Examples of cattle by-products: – cat food, dog food, medicines, marshmallows, cosmetics, furniture and clothing
Interesting Dairy Facts • • • Milk Important to economy because it is used in a variety of products Average American uses about 600 pounds of milk /milk products per year The dairy industry must produce over 150 million pounds of milk annually to keep up with American demand Can use bovine growth hormone (BGH) to increase milk production for extended periods of time The most numerous diary breed is the Holstein. • New Mexico leads the nation in annual milk production per cow • New Mexico produces 20% of the nations cheese!
Interesting New Mexico Dairy Facts • New Mexico has the highest production per cow rate in the country • The top 3 dairy producing counties in New Mexico are: • Chaves • Curry • Roosevelt
Explore the six major breeds of dairy cattle used for milking. Objective #5
The Six Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle • • • Holstein Ayrshire Brown Swiss Jersey Milking Shorthorn Guernsey
Holstein • Most popular breed • makes up 90% of dairy cattle in the U. S. • Came from Netherlands in 1600’s • Black & white • very large animals • produce large average amount of milk per cow • milk is lower in butterfat and protein
Ayrshire • Originated in Scotland • Light to dark cherry red, browns, and white in any combination • Polled • Known for strong feet & legs, grazing ability, and well-attached udders
Brown Swiss • Originated in the Alps of Switzerland • Solid brown in color • Nose & tongue are black • light-colored band around muzzle • higher fat and protein ratio than Holstein • Calm disposition • At one time a dual purpose animal (meat)
Guernsey • Originated in the island of Guernsey • color is mostly fawn with white markings • smaller calves • their milk color is golden in color because of hi butterfat • popularity has declined- low production
Jersey • Originated in the island of Jersey • vary in color but can be fawn, near white, grayish, with or without white markings • known for udder qualities – well shaped with strong attachments • Low in milk production • butterfat & protein is the highest • increasing in popularity • small breed
Milking Shorthorn • Originated in England • any combination of red and white, just red or just white • very adaptable • commonly used for beef & dairy • a fairly new breed designated as a dairy breed in 1968
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Student Learning Activities • Sample tests are available in the Lesson Plan tab.