- Slides: 16
Exploring problems with skeletal system Aseel Samaro
Exploring problems with skeletal system § This patient suffers from scoliosis which causes abnormal curvature of the spine § You can see it more clearly in the X-ray of her spine. § Scoliosis can present from übirth (congenital) üunknown origin (idiopathic)
Exploring problems with skeletal system The skeletal system is made up of: üBones üTendons üLigaments üCartilage üMuscles § Medical problems can arise with any of these components, ranging from fractures to genetic conditions that we inherit. § The diagnosis and treatment of these problems have changed over time.
Break a leg § With 206 bones in the human skeletal system, it is no surprise that bones are sometimes broken. § Bones contain collagen, which allows them to bend a little. § However, with a large enough impact bones can splinter, break or shatter.
§ Bone breaks, or fractures, can often be treated by covering the limb with a plaster cast of glass fibre. § This holds the bones in place while new bone knits (joins) the broken ends together. § More severe fractures require metal pins fastening through the broken bones to hold them in place while healing takes place. § An open, or compound, fracture is one in which the skin is broken. This has a much higher risk of infection and usually requires surgery.
Broken bones can heal in a cast Broken bones can be seen in an X-ray image.
Suggest how a fracture may happen. Describe how a fracture may be treated. Explain why a compound fracture is often more serious than other fractures.
Other problems with the skeletal muscles § From the age of approximately 35, the density of bones decreases naturally. § In some people, the density drops below a healthy level and bones become fragile, making them prone to fractures. This condition is called osteoporosis. § Treatment for osteoporosis includes taking drugs to strengthen the bones.
Other problems with the skeletal muscles § Arthritis is a condition that affects the joints. § In one form of arthritis, the cartilage at the end of the bones wears away and bones rub together. § This can be very painful. § In severe cases, the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial joint.
Explain why sufferers of osteoporosis are prone to fractures. Explain why arthritis can be so painful.
Medical advances § As technology improves, diagnosis of fractures by X-rays has become more precise. § Surgical techniques have also improved recovery from serious fractures. § As scientists learn more about osteoporosis, they can advise on how to avoid this disease. § In the past, all that could be done was to treat the fractures.
Medical advances § Scientists are also learning more about genes so that diagnosis of genetic conditions affecting the skeletal system is now possible. § Genetic counselling allows parents at risk of passing on a condition to be informed of the risks and consequences.
Describe three improvements in treating skeletal system problems. more precise X-rays; improved surgery; increased knowledge of avoiding damage
Did you know? § People with hypermobility syndrome are sometimes described as being ‘double jointed’. § In the past, people with this condition performed in circuses and sideshows as clowns. § The condition results in joint pain and dislocation of joints.