- Slides: 10
Nucleic Acids and ATP
Nucleic Acids Elements: C, H, O, N, P, S Two types of Nucleic acids: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) RNA (Ribonucleic acid) DNA is Formed of in a "Double Helix" - like a spiral staircase.
Nucleotides DNA is formed from Nucleotides These are made of 3 components A 5 -Carbon Sugar A Nitrogenous base A Phosphate group DNA/RNA backbone through linkages from the OH group of the 3 rd carbon to a phosphate group of the adjoining nucleotide. These are called Phosphodiester bonds
Types of Nucleotides For DNA There are 4 different Nucleotides categorized as either Purines (double ring) or Pyramidines (single ringed). These are usually represented by a letter. These Are: Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Thymine (T)
Base Pairing Rules Each "Rung" of the DNA "staircase" is formed by the linking of 2 Nucleotides through Hydrogen Bonds. These Hydrogen bonds form only between specific Nucleotides. This is known as Base Pairing. The rules are as follows: Adenine (A) will ONLY bond to Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) will ONLY bond to Guanine (G)
RNA AKA ribonucleic acid RNA differs from DNA in several important ways. It is much smaller It is single-stranded It does NOT contain Thymine, but rather a new nucleotide called Uracil which will bind to Adenine.
ATP Short for Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. Composed of Ribose, Adenine & a phosphate group Phosphate group has ability to bind/release additional phosphate group allowing it to store or release energy ATP vs. ADP vs. AMP