Exercise Physiology Anatomy Cardiovascular system Exercise Physiology Bell

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Exercise Physiology, Anatomy Cardiovascular system

Exercise Physiology, Anatomy Cardiovascular system

Exercise Physiology Bell Ringer Think way back to year 1: Health occupations: Talk about

Exercise Physiology Bell Ringer Think way back to year 1: Health occupations: Talk about these topics: What How is flexibility, body composition do you find fat free weight Brainstorm some fitness testing: (think of what you do in fitness)

Exercise physiology Vocab pgs 1 -3

Exercise physiology Vocab pgs 1 -3

Exercise Physiology Optimum Fitness Independent Use work from packet pages 1 -3

Exercise Physiology Optimum Fitness Independent Use work from packet pages 1 -3

Exercise Physiology Vocab! Independently memorize Cardiovascular System Vocab box.

Exercise Physiology Vocab! Independently memorize Cardiovascular System Vocab box.

Exercise Physiology Using pages 30 -34 fill in the guided notes

Exercise Physiology Using pages 30 -34 fill in the guided notes

Anatomy of the Heart Review! Label!

Anatomy of the Heart Review! Label!

 Physiology of the Cardiopulmonary System Heart basics: R & L sides 4 chambers

Physiology of the Cardiopulmonary System Heart basics: R & L sides 4 chambers R side = venous blood Myocardium contracts, blood to lungs Blood picks up oxygen (hemoglobin) Oxy blood to L side While R side contracts L side contracts and sends blood through aorta to rest of body 2 main circulatory patterns. Pulmonary: Heart to lungs Systemic Left ventricle to body and back Cardiac Cycle: phases in the rhythmic pattern of cardiac contraction and relaxation

Physiology of the Cardiopulmonary System Q (cardiac output) amount of blood that flows out

Physiology of the Cardiopulmonary System Q (cardiac output) amount of blood that flows out of ventricles with each beat R & L ventricle output is the same. L has greater force. WHY? 2 factors: HR in bpm Stroke volume (SV) in m. L SV: the amount of bl pumped from each ventricle each time the heart beats Equation: Q = HR X SV Example: heart beats 60 times per min and 70 milliliters of blood are pumped each beat. 60 bpm x 70 m. L/beat = 4200 m. L/min

Physiology of the Cardiopulmonary System Ejection fraction: blood in ventricle at the end of

Physiology of the Cardiopulmonary System Ejection fraction: blood in ventricle at the end of diastole. At rest it is about 50%, the heart can supply enough oxygen for demands of body. Activity increases need for oxygen so it needs to empty the ventricle completely Oxygen extraction at the Muscles We need oxygen! Oxygen is in blood on hemoglobin. When we work we extract it from hemoglobin. limitation to exercise performance is the capacity of the muscles to extract oxygen from the bloodstream to produce energy.

Bell Ringer match optimum fitness Vocab to the definitions A. B. ___ the number

Bell Ringer match optimum fitness Vocab to the definitions A. B. ___ the number of repeated contractions a muscle or muscle group can perform against a resistance w/o fatigue ___the max amount of force a muscle or muscle group can develop during a single contraction C. ___ the ability of the heart, blood and lungs to deliver an adequate supply of oxygen to exercising muscle D. ___ the sum of fat weight and fat free weight E. ___ the amount of movement that can be accomplished at a joint 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance 2. Muscular strength 3. Muscular endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body composition

Bell Ringer 1. Explain how our bodies get oxygen 3. Put blood in order:

Bell Ringer 1. Explain how our bodies get oxygen 3. Put blood in order: ____ blood discharges o 2 and binds to CO 2 in body 2. Explain Q and how it works. ____ blood enter the right side of the heart ____ blood enters the left side of the heart ____ blood enters the systemic veins ____ blood enters the systemic arteries ____ blood enters the pulmonary veins

Exercise Physiology Vocab: Work with a buddy Using pages 6 -8

Exercise Physiology Vocab: Work with a buddy Using pages 6 -8

ATP: energy production in cells ATP Stands for adenosine triphosphate: its where we get

ATP: energy production in cells ATP Stands for adenosine triphosphate: its where we get our energy The body uses Fat and CHO (glucose) as the 2 primary substances to produce ATP When client is at rest ATP is mostly produced with fat and CHO because oxygen is available With activity, body demands to much oxygen and muscle cannot keep up. Anaerobic system kicks in to rapidly produce ATP (by using glucose and creatine phosphate

ATP: energy production in cells con’t • w/o oxygen • Primary system when oxygen

ATP: energy production in cells con’t • w/o oxygen • Primary system when oxygen is depleted • Occurs inside the cell but OUTSIDE the mitochondria Creatine phosphate • w/oxygen • Most dominant • Greater the # of mitochondria the greater the aerobic energy production Anaerobic Aerobic Supply of energy (ATP) comes from 1 of 3 pathways • Also used when oxygen is depleted • Limited supply • 10 sec of max effort

Exercise Physiology Energy production in cells Enzymes: Carry out chemical reactions that produce ATP

Exercise Physiology Energy production in cells Enzymes: Carry out chemical reactions that produce ATP both aerobically and anaerobically Below the anaerobic threshold = aerobic enzymes metabolize fat and carbs Exercise above anaerobic threshold = anaerobic enzymes take over AEROBIC TRAINING WILL LEAD TO AN INCREASED CAPACITY TO BURN FAT

ATP: energy production in cells CONCLUSION AEROBIC CELL USES FATTY ACIDS AND GLUCOSE TO

ATP: energy production in cells CONCLUSION AEROBIC CELL USES FATTY ACIDS AND GLUCOSE TO PRODUCE ATP AEROBIC PRODUCES MORE ATP THAN ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS (fat yields 9 calories of energy per gram) END PRODUCTS (BYPRODUCTS) OF AEROBIC SYSTEM (THE WASTE) IS WATER AND CO 2, THE BODY CAN GET RID OF THOSE SUPER EASY! ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS USE GLUCOSE AND PHOSPHAGEN ANAEROBIC SYSTEM PRODUCES LESS ATP ANAEROBIC SYSTEM BYPRODUCTS = LACTIC ACID, HEAT, HYDROGEN IONS

Aerobic Capacity: Vo 2 max: Total capacity to consume oxygen at the cellular level

Aerobic Capacity: Vo 2 max: Total capacity to consume oxygen at the cellular level 2 factors: Delivery of oxygen to the working muscle by the blood (Q) The ability to extract the oxygen from the blood at the capillaries and use it in the mitochondria. Formula: VO 2 max = (cardiac output max) x (oxygen extraction max) Measured in m. L o 2/kg/min

Formula: VO 2 max = (cardiac output max) x (oxygen extraction max) Measured in

Formula: VO 2 max = (cardiac output max) x (oxygen extraction max) Measured in m. L o 2/kg/min Resting VO 2 Max (for exercise) Example: client weighs 154 lb (divide by 2. 2 for kg). RHR is 60 bpm, SV is 70 m. L/beat, oxygen extraction is 6 m. L O 2/100 m. L of blood. Then resting VO 2 is: Example: HR 180 bpm, SV 115 m. L/beat, oxygen extraction of 15 m. L o 2/100 m. L blood. Vo 2 = (60 bpm x 70 m. L/beat) x (6 m. L o 2/100 ml blood) = 252 m. L o 2/min Divide by weight in kg = resting Vo 2 Max = (180 bpm x 115 m. L/blood) x (15 m. L o 2/100 m. L blood) = 3, 105 m. L o 2/min Divide by weight in kg = 44. 4 m. L/kg/min WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? ? ? ?

Formula: VO 2 max = (cardiac output max) x (oxygen extraction max) Measured in

Formula: VO 2 max = (cardiac output max) x (oxygen extraction max) Measured in m. L o 2/kg/min Resting VO 2 Max (for exercise) Example: client weighs 154 lb (divide by 2. 2 for kg). RHR is 60 bpm, SV is 70 m. L/beat, oxygen extraction is 6 m. L O 2/100 m. L of blood. Then resting VO 2 is: Example: HR 180 bpm, SV 115 m. L/beat, oxygen extraction of 15 m. L o 2/100 m. L blood. Vo 2 = (60 bpm x 70 m. L/beat) x (6 m. L o 2/100 ml blood) = 252 m. L o 2/min Divide by weight in kg = resting Vo 2 Max = (180 bpm x 115 m. L/blood) x (15 m. L o 2/100 m. L blood) = 3, 105 m. L o 2/min Divide by weight in kg = 44. 4 m. L/kg/min WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? ? ? ?

Cardiovascular response to Exercise Changes in Oxygen Delivery Increase in HR and SV WHY?

Cardiovascular response to Exercise Changes in Oxygen Delivery Increase in HR and SV WHY? In order to increase the delivery of oxygen to working muscles HOW? Blood flow is shut off from the abdominal area to the exercising muscles Vasodilation of arterial vessels that go to muscles, vasoconstriction to the abdominal area SBP during exercise: blood pressure changes, it’s the contraction phase. So better condition of the heart muscle (myocardium) the more efficient the contraction. Diastolic pressure during exercise: should stay the same of even decrease. Why do we want these changes? Body’s way of trying to deliver more oxygen to the exercising muscles. Get ATP to mitochondria!

Cardiovascular response to Exercise Changes in Cardiac Output In Response to aerobic training: increased

Cardiovascular response to Exercise Changes in Cardiac Output In Response to aerobic training: increased aerobic capacity (Vo 2) Increased aerobic capacity causes: Changes in Oxygen Extraction 1. New capillaries: produced in the active skeletal muscles, increasing area for oxygen exchange 1. decrease RHR (ventricles hold more blood) 2. SV increases 3. Q is maintained at lower HR 4. heart beats fewer times Importance? Leads to increase in amount of aerobic enzyme activity in the cell, more efficient mitochondria! 2. increase in: Q which increases: aerobic capacity which increases: ability to make ATP

Cardiovascular response to Exercise Increased maximum___Q__ + increased ___extraction capability_____ = 1. greater maximum

Cardiovascular response to Exercise Increased maximum___Q__ + increased ___extraction capability_____ = 1. greater maximum aerobic capacity 2. elevated anaerobic threshold Ability to produce ATP = More “fit” client and greater ability to burn fat Submaximal exercise changes: Body uses more fatty acids for ATP production Stores more glycogen in trained muscles and produces less lactic acid

Cardiovascular response to Exercise REVIEW Put a I if there is a increase, D

Cardiovascular response to Exercise REVIEW Put a I if there is a increase, D if there is a decrease and NC if there is no change during a single bout of exercise. Your response is based on a healthy client. a. ____ systolic blood pressure b. ____ diastolic blood pressure c. ____ blood flow to the abdominal area d. ____ amount of peripheral resistance in the vascular system e. ____ ATP production