- Slides: 47
Exercise and the Brain Matt Trout Supervisor of Health, Physical Education, FCS & Gifted Education
A moving brain is a thinking brain Brief clip – warm-up for learning A Moving Brain is a Thinking Brain
What if I told you, there’s a pill that can… Slow the aging process in the body and the brain decrease osteoporosis decrease cardiovascular diseases decrease blood pressure decrease stress - by elevating your stress threshold decrease anxiety decrease depression moderate acute and chronic hormonal changes regulate metabolism reduce obesity boost the immune system decrease the incidence of cancer boost motivation promote neuroplasticity Build new capillaries and expand the vascular system of the brain
And…what if I told you… It’s essentially free, and has no side effects Would you take the pill?
Session Focus – Exercise and… Learning Stress Depression Anxiety Aging Exercise Recommendations
Goals Provide information that will peak your interest in this topic Develop an understanding that exercise is not just from the neck down. Keep in mind…I’m not a neuroscientist Review some of the implementation strategies used at CV SD
Prescription Drugs Statistics 374 billion dollars was spent on prescription drugs in 2014. (Reuters) 30 million Americans were prescribed antidepressant drugs in 2014 (New York Times) The US consumes 80% of prescription painkillers worldwide
Exercise as Medicine More than half of the physicians trained in the United States receive no formal education in physical activity, according to a 2015 study Most money is spent on treatment – not prevention ØExample – Type 2 Diabetes – preventable disease that costs billions per year ØObesity costs $200 billion annually
The Synapses in the brain don’t actually touch ØImpulses that start as electrical activity along an axon are carried across synapses (gaps between neurons) by chemicals called neurotransmitters.
NT & Neuroplasticity Neurotransmitters fit into receptors – lock and key Neuroplasticity – the brain changes due to it’s environment. ØYounger brains are more plastic, but older brains still experience changes throughout life
Drugs and NT Drug Used to Treat Neurotransmitter Prozac Depression & Panic Disorder Serotonin Xanax Anxiety and Panic Disorder GABA Lexapro Depression and Anxiety Serotonin Zoloft Depression Serotonin Ritalin ADHD Dopamine
Neurotransmitters Serotonin – (Prozac) Ø the policeman of the brain – keeps the brain under control. Ø Influences mood, impulsivity, anger and aggressiveness. calmness, less impulsive Norepinephrine - amplifies signals that influence attention, perception, motivation and arousal. Dopamine – (Ritalin) learning, reward (satisfaction), attention, and movement, addiction, motivation, satiation, turns on frontal cortex Ø Ritalin raises dopamine, thus calming the mind.
Exercise & Neurotransmitters Exercise balances NTs, along with the rest of the neurochemicals in the brain Medications work to address imbalances – Exercise does the same thing
Brain Break Cross-body high five
Exercise & Learning BDNF – Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor ØProtein developed as a result of chronic aerobic exercise ØStimulates Neurogenesis – Miracle Grow for the brain ØHippocampus – responsible for learning and memory
BDNF is literally fertilizer for the brain Fosters growth and development (neurogenesis) Promotes stem cells to grow into nerve cells Increases plasticity BDNF - is made all the time in the brain - whenever cells are working. However, exercise maximizes the production.
Exercise & Learning Exercise improves learning on three levels ØPrepares and encourages nerve cells to bind to one another, which is the cellular basis for learning. ØOptimizes the mindset to improve alertness, attention and motivation ØIt stimulates the development of new nerve cells from stem cells in the hippocampus.
Fitness & Academic Performance The California Department of Education Ø Over a five year period, students with higher fitness scores (Fitnessgram) consistently showed higher test scores. Ø The CDE correlated scores from standard achievement tests with scores from the Fitnessgram (state mandated fitness test) for more than one million students. Fit kids in the CDE study scored twice as well on academic tests as their unfit peers. EEG’s of fit students’ brains showed more activity in the fit students’ brains Ø Indicating that more neurons were involved in attention were being recruited for a given task.
Fitness Testing – Texas Study Fitness Gram utilized for 2. 4 million students in Texas public schools Higher levels of fitness are associated with better academic performance (TAKS) Higher levels of fitness are associated with better school attendance Higher levels of fitness are associated with fewer behavioral incidents Cardio fitness is most associated with academic performance Ø Schools with the highest and lowest academic performance also have highest and lowest cardio fitness Fitness levels tend to decline with each passing grade
This is your Brain on Exercise
Why Kids Need Recess ØStudies focusing on recess found positive associations between physical activity and the ability to concentrate in class ØA single 15 -minute daily recess was correlated with more-positive ratings of classroom behavior. Not All Fun And Games: New Guidelines Urge Schools To Rethink Recess
Exercise Recommendations Children and youth aged 5– 17 should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorousintensity physical activity daily. Amounts of physical activity greater than 60 minutes provide additional health benefits. Most of the daily physical activity should be aerobic.
Brain Break Ear, Nose, touch elbow (arm holding nose) to opposite knee
Stress Brain loses plasticity with chronic depression - exercise-induced BDNF production reverses this. Chronic stress causes increased secretion of Cortisol - increases fat deposits in the mid-section. Abdominal fat is more “metabolically mobile”, - greater risk for high cholesterol, heart attacks and stroke. Chronic stress = increased cortisol = damage to neurons = reduce ability to learn = reduce memory
Stress The hippocampus is loaded with cortisol receptors Chronic stress damages neural networks and halts brain development, thereby decreasing learning and memory Chronic stress can decrease cognitive performance by up to 50%
Stress Exercise raises the stress threshold of neurons in the brain. Optimizes energy usage by triggering more insulin receptors - better usage of blood glucose and stronger cells. Exercise wards off the ill effects of chronic stress and can also reverse symptoms.
Anxiety Why Exercise Makes you Less Anxious Ø“It looks more and more like the positive stress of exercise prepares cells and structures and pathways within the brain so that they’re more equipped to handle stress in other forms, ” says Michael Hopkins, a graduate student affiliated with the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Laboratory at Dartmouth ØIt takes between 3 and 6 weeks
Depression 17% of American adults experience depression at some point in their lives = $26. 1 billion in health care costs each year. 20% of teens experience depression Exercise regulates all of the neurotransmitters targeted by antidepressants. Exercise immediately elevates norepinephrine, improves, self-esteem which is one component of depression.
Depression Exercise boosts serotonin & dopamine - improves mood and jump starts the attention system. Dopamine is all about motivation and attention. Chronic exercise Ø Increases dopamine storage in the brain Ø Creates dopamine receptors in the reward center of the brain. Ø Regulates Serotonin – calming (Policeman)
Depression 1999 Duke University study - exercise reduces the effects of depression better than Zoloft.
ADHD Exercise is ADHD Medication
Aging Three contributors to the decrease in the onset of Alzheimers ØLow caloric intake ØContinued learning ØExercise All are low levels of stress - recovery period where brain cells grow healthier.
Exercise and Aging Exercise slows brain aging by 10 years Sitting Too Much Ages You by 8 Years
Exercise and Cancer Risk Increased risk of breast cancer for inactive women Physically active people have 50% less chance of developing colon cancer Active men over 65 have a 70% lower chance of developing the advanced, fatal form of prostate cancer
Aging and Strength Training Twelve months of once-weekly or twiceweekly resistance training benefited the executive cognitive function of selective attention and conflict resolution among senior women. (NIH study)
Exercise Recommendations Aerobic exercise 4 - 5 times per week at 6065% MHR for 45 minutes. We should do MORE as we get older. Ø Aerobic and some type of skill acquisition has additional benefits - complex movements strengthen and expand neural networks. Ø New circuits are created through movement - can be recruited by other areas and used for thinking. This is why learning to play piano makes it easier for kids to learn math Ø Any motor skill more complicated than walking has to be learned, thus challenging the brain.
Intensity and HGH Increasing intensity enhances the release of HGH. ØMix in periods of high intensity with cardio activities for 20 -30 second intervals. ØHGH levels increase for hours after exercise as well. ØHGH decreases fat due to increased metabolic rate, especially belly fat. ØHelps mood and alertness as well.
BDNF Formula Multiply your bodyweight x 8 to figure out how many calories you should burn for the high doses of BDNF. 150 pounds (150 lbs. x 8 = 1, 200 calories) and burn 200 calories in 30 minutes on a piece of cardio equipment, you’d want to do 6 sessions a week to meet the high dose.
Sedentary = Lost Benefits of exercise diminish quickly ØAfter just 10 days of rest
CV Health & PE 2106 -17 Department Goal – Spark book study Book separated into chapters with group assignments and presentations during department PD and department meetings Relevant content incorporated into Health & PE curriculum district-wide
District-Wide Promotion Provided Exercise and the Brain PD sessions for district staff in October and February (2016 -17) Included exercise & the brain facts in monthly reports to the school board Included E & B facts and updates during my annual school board presentation Developing district-wide PD for “Brain Breaks” (for classroom teachers)