Exam 3 W 42 in class Review T

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Exam #3 W 4/2 in class Review T 4/1 from 5 -7 pm in

Exam #3 W 4/2 in class Review T 4/1 from 5 -7 pm in PAI 3. 02 Before Exam #3: the nervous system, movement, and the immune system

Taking in food and oxygen exposes us to pathogens esophagus stomach

Taking in food and oxygen exposes us to pathogens esophagus stomach

Pathogen: a disease causing agent CB 18. 2

Pathogen: a disease causing agent CB 18. 2

E. coli Phage virus Ebola Fungus from soil various pathogens

E. coli Phage virus Ebola Fungus from soil various pathogens

The Immune System • Non-specific: – barriers CB 43. 2 • Specific: – B-cells

The Immune System • Non-specific: – barriers CB 43. 2 • Specific: – B-cells -> antibodies – T-cells

Non-Specific Immune System Barriers: Skin. Dry Inhospitable Competition Secretions (lysozyme) Hairs and Mucus (protect

Non-Specific Immune System Barriers: Skin. Dry Inhospitable Competition Secretions (lysozyme) Hairs and Mucus (protect openings) Traps particles, swallowed Stomach acid kills pathogens CB 43. 2

CB 43. 2 Skin protects us from most pathogens

CB 43. 2 Skin protects us from most pathogens

Non-Specific Immune System Barriers: Skin. Dry Inhospitable Competition Secretions (lysozyme) Hairs and Mucus (protect

Non-Specific Immune System Barriers: Skin. Dry Inhospitable Competition Secretions (lysozyme) Hairs and Mucus (protect openings) Traps particles, swallowed Stomach acid kills pathogens CB 43. 2

esophagus stomach

esophagus stomach

Non-Specific Immune System Barriers: Skin. Dry Inhospitable Competition Secretions (lysozyme) Hairs and Mucus (protect

Non-Specific Immune System Barriers: Skin. Dry Inhospitable Competition Secretions (lysozyme) Hairs and Mucus (protect openings) Traps particles, swallowed Stomach acid kills pathogens CB 43. 2

The Immune System • Non-specific: – barriers CB 43. 2 • Specific: – B-cells

The Immune System • Non-specific: – barriers CB 43. 2 • Specific: – B-cells -> antibodies – T-cells

The Specific Immune System

The Specific Immune System

B-cells and T-cells move through the circulatory system scanning for pathogens

B-cells and T-cells move through the circulatory system scanning for pathogens

B-cells develop in bone marrow T-cells in the thymus CB 43. 10

B-cells develop in bone marrow T-cells in the thymus CB 43. 10

CB 43. 12 B-cells make and secrete antibodies

CB 43. 12 B-cells make and secrete antibodies

CB 43. 8 Variable region An Antibody Constant region

CB 43. 8 Variable region An Antibody Constant region

Antibodies recognize and bind to antigens CB 43. 7

Antibodies recognize and bind to antigens CB 43. 7

B-cells male antibodies that bind to antigens marking them for destruction CB 43. 12

B-cells male antibodies that bind to antigens marking them for destruction CB 43. 12 and 19 Marked for destruction by WBC

What about damaged or abnormal cells? • Viral infections • Cancer cells • Non-functional

What about damaged or abnormal cells? • Viral infections • Cancer cells • Non-functional cells

T-cells recognize and destroy abnormal cells CB 43. 16

T-cells recognize and destroy abnormal cells CB 43. 16

Immune System Overview CB 43. 14

Immune System Overview CB 43. 14

It can take 7 -14 days to produce sufficient antibodies to eliminate a pathogen

It can take 7 -14 days to produce sufficient antibodies to eliminate a pathogen CB 43. 13

Memory B-cells make the response to a second exposure more rapid CB 43. 17

Memory B-cells make the response to a second exposure more rapid CB 43. 17 This is how vaccines work. Marked for destruction by WBC

Vaccines work via memory B-cells that make the response to a second exposure more

Vaccines work via memory B-cells that make the response to a second exposure more rapid CB 43. 13

The immune system during HIV infection

The immune system during HIV infection

This will not be on the exam! Human Papilloma Virus

This will not be on the exam! Human Papilloma Virus

Human Papilloma Virus: the leading cause of Genital warts Cervical cancer This will not

Human Papilloma Virus: the leading cause of Genital warts Cervical cancer This will not be on the exam!

Human Papilloma Virus: the leading cause of Genital warts Cervical cancer • Does HPV

Human Papilloma Virus: the leading cause of Genital warts Cervical cancer • Does HPV enter the lysogenic cycle? This will not be on the exam!

This will not be on the exam! • At least 50% of sexually active

This will not be on the exam! • At least 50% of sexually active people will get HPV at some time in their lives. • Every year in the United States, about 6. 2 million people get HPV. • HPV is most common in young women and men who are in their late teens and early 20 s. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! The American Cancer Society estimates that in

This will not be on the exam! The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2006, over 9, 700 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and 3, 700 women died from this cancer in the U. S. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine developed by Merck, Gardasil,

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine developed by Merck, Gardasil, protects against four HPV types which account for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine is made up of

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine is made up of proteins from the outer coat of the virus. Human Papilloma Virus: Genital warts the leading cause of Cervical cancer http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

The Texas Department of Health has ruled that students must be current with immunizations

The Texas Department of Health has ruled that students must be current with immunizations in order to attend school unless an exemption has been filed with the school in accordance with Texas Education Code, Health and Safety, Chapter 38. 0001. Unless a child’s immunizations are current when school begins in August 2008, parents will be asked to obtain the needed immunizations before their child is allowed to return to school. This will not be on the exam!

This will not be on the exam! Current mandated vaccines for attendance in Texas

This will not be on the exam! Current mandated vaccines for attendance in Texas schools: 3 doses of DPT, DTa. P, DT, Td. 4 doses of Polio 1 dose of Measles on/after 1 st birthday and 1 dose MMR on/after 1 st birthday. 3 doses of Hepatitis B 1 dose of Varicella on/after 1 st birthday (if the child has NOT had chickenpox)

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine is recommended for 11

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine is recommended for 11 -12 year-old girls, and can be given to girls as young as 9. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine is recommended for 1112

This will not be on the exam! The HPV vaccine is recommended for 1112 year-old girls, and can be given to girls as young as 9. For the vaccine to be effective, you must be vaccinated prior to exposure to HPV. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! Effectiveness of HPV vaccine against cervical cancer

This will not be on the exam! Effectiveness of HPV vaccine against cervical cancer

This will not be on the exam! Effectiveness of HPV vaccine against genital warts

This will not be on the exam! Effectiveness of HPV vaccine against genital warts

This will not be on the exam! • The length of vaccine protection (immunity)

This will not be on the exam! • The length of vaccine protection (immunity) is usually not known when a vaccine is first introduced. • So far, studies have followed women for five years and found that women are still protected. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! • The length of vaccine protection (immunity)

This will not be on the exam! • The length of vaccine protection (immunity) is usually not known when a vaccine is first introduced. • So far, studies have followed women for five years and found that women are still protected. • More research is being done to find out how long protection will last, and if a booster vaccine is needed years later. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! The retail price of the vaccine is

This will not be on the exam! The retail price of the vaccine is $120 per dose ($360 for full series). While some insurance companies may cover the vaccine, others may not. http: //www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine. htm#hpvvac 7

This will not be on the exam! Controversy http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=J 1

This will not be on the exam! Controversy http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=J 1 Zg 46 JKDz. M

Exam #3 W 4/2 in class Review T 4/1 from 5 -7 pm in

Exam #3 W 4/2 in class Review T 4/1 from 5 -7 pm in PAI 3. 02 Before Exam #3: the nervous system, movement and the immune system E. coli Phage virus Fungus from soil Ebola